At a fundamental level, what causes obesity?
More energy in than energy out
Which three food groups contribute the most to obesity?
Excess of what drinks can cause obesity?
What three processes contribute to energy expenditure in the body?
Basal metabolism - e.g digesting food, heartbeat, breathing...
Thermogenesis - temperature regulation of the body
Which gene is thought to be associated with obesity?
Obesity is associated with a lot of _-__.
What are some cardiovascular complications of obesity?
PE / Stroke
What are some respiratory complications of obesity?
What are some musculoskeletal complications of obesity?
Chronic pain syndromes (e.g fibromyalgia)
If you have obesity, you are more likely to develop ___.
Obesity causes ___ ___ which leads to overproduction of insulin by the pancreas, causing ___.
What are some incretins, found in the GI tract, which influence glucose absorption and appetite?
GIP and GLP-1
acted on by GLP-1 agonists (exenatide) and DPP-IV inhibitors (gliptins)
What is a hormone which informs the hypothalamus of the body's fat content, has an effect on appetite and reduces resting metabolic rate?
If no leptin is being produced, or your leptin receptors function incorrectly, the hypothalamus thinks you're in a state of ___ and will increase your appetite.
What cell structure, when stressed, triggers inflammation?
What situations stress the ER?
Inflammation brings about insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia, which both bring on one another.
What are the long term consequences of
a) insulin resistance
Through which three means can obesity be treated?
Lifestyle - diet, exercise, stop smoking and drinking
What is a hypocaloric diet?
More calories OUT than IN
Hypocaloric diet are low in ___ and ___.
What is the only licensed drug for obesity in the UK?
Orlistat (i.e Alli)
Orlistat blocks fat absorption by inhibiting the action of enzymes called ___.
What symptom does this produce?
What are the two general types of bariatric surgery?
Restrictive (gastric band - reduces stomach capacity)
Malabsorptive (gastric bypass - absorptive part of stomach skipped)
Gastric bypass is an example of ___ bariatric surgery.
Gastric banding is an example of ___ bariatric surgery.
(malabsorptive , restrictive)
Gastric bypass - malabsorptive
Gastric band - restrictive
Evidence shows that, out of lifestyle changes, drugs and surgery, the intervention which causes the best outcome in patients with obesity is ___.
People who have had bariatric surgery are more likely to have ___ deficiencies.
Give an example?
Vit B12, which causes anaemia
Patients who have had gastric bypass surgery are prescribed ___ supplements.
In terms of metabolism, what falls as weight does?
What is this process called?
Resting metabolic rate
This is why it's harder to lose weight as you go on
The (higher / lower) your resting metabolic rate, the more difficult it is to lose weight.
lower metabolic rate = harder to lose weight
as energy expenditure is less
The body sees weight loss as a threat to ___.