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Endocrine Week 2 2017/18 > 2: Aspects of obesity > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2: Aspects of obesity Deck (30)
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1

At a fundamental level, what causes obesity?

More energy in than energy out

2

Which three food groups contribute the most to obesity?

Carbohydrates

Fat

Protein

3

Excess of what drinks can cause obesity?

Alcohol

4

What three processes contribute to energy expenditure in the body?

Basal metabolism - e.g digesting food, heartbeat, breathing...

Thermogenesis - temperature regulation of the body

Physical activity

5

Which gene is thought to be associated with obesity?

FTO

6

Obesity is associated with a lot of _-__.

co-morbidities

7

What are some cardiovascular complications of obesity?

Hypertension

PE / Stroke

Heart failure

8

What are some respiratory complications of obesity?

Sleep apnoea

Asthma

9

What are some musculoskeletal complications of obesity?

Osteoarthritis

Chronic pain syndromes (e.g fibromyalgia)

10

If you have obesity, you are more likely to develop ___.

cancer

11

Obesity causes ___ ___ which leads to overproduction of insulin by the pancreas, causing ___.

insulin resistance

hyperinsulinaemia

12

What are some incretins, found in the GI tract, which influence glucose absorption and appetite?

GIP and GLP-1

acted on by GLP-1 agonists (exenatide) and DPP-IV inhibitors (gliptins)

13

What is a hormone which informs the hypothalamus of the body's fat content, has an effect on appetite and reduces resting metabolic rate?

Leptin

14

If no leptin is being produced, or your leptin receptors function incorrectly, the hypothalamus thinks you're in a state of ___ and will increase your appetite.

starvation

15

What cell structure, when stressed, triggers inflammation?

Endoplasmic reticulum

16

What situations stress the ER?

Obesity

Infection

17

Inflammation brings about insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia, which both bring on one another.

What are the long term consequences of

a) insulin resistance

b) hyperlipidaemia?

a) Diabetes

b) Atherosclerosis

18

Through which three means can obesity be treated?

Lifestyle - diet, exercise, stop smoking and drinking

Drugs

Bariatric surgery

19

What is a hypocaloric diet?

More calories OUT than IN

20

Hypocaloric diet are low in ___ and ___.

carbohydrates

fat

21

What is the only licensed drug for obesity in the UK?

Orlistat (i.e Alli)

22

Orlistat blocks fat absorption by inhibiting the action of enzymes called ___.

What symptom does this produce?

lipases

steattorhea

23

What are the two general types of bariatric surgery?

Restrictive (gastric band - reduces stomach capacity)

Malabsorptive (gastric bypass - absorptive part of stomach skipped)

24

Gastric bypass is an example of ___ bariatric surgery.

Gastric banding is an example of ___ bariatric surgery.

(malabsorptive , restrictive)

Gastric bypass - malabsorptive

Gastric band - restrictive

25

Evidence shows that, out of lifestyle changes, drugs and surgery, the intervention which causes the best outcome in patients with obesity is ___.

surgery

sadly

26

People who have had bariatric surgery are more likely to have ___ deficiencies.

Give an example?

micronutrient

Vit B12, which causes anaemia

27

Patients who have had gastric bypass surgery are prescribed ___ supplements.

vitamin supplements

28

In terms of metabolism, what falls as weight does?

What is this process called?

Resting metabolic rate 

Adaptive thermogenesis

This is why it's harder to lose weight as you go on

29

The (higher / lower) your resting metabolic rate, the more difficult it is to lose weight.

lower metabolic rate = harder to lose weight

as energy expenditure is less

30

The body sees weight loss as a threat to ___.

survival