Why is glycaemic control important in people with diabetes?
Better glycaemic control reduces your risk of microvascular complications
What are the three main microvascular complications of diabetes?
An HbA1c level of 7% is equal to what in units?
What are the main macrovascular complications of diabetes?
How do you explain HbA1c to a patient?
i.e glucose sticking to your red blood cells, gives an indication of your blood sugar levels and therefore how well your diabetes is controlled
HbA1c indicates your average blood glucose level over a period of how long?
1.5 - 2 months
A normal (i.e non-diabetic) HbA1c level is less than __ mmol/mol.
In pre-diabetes, HbA1c is between __ and __ mmol/mol.
42 and 47 mmol/mol
In uncontrolled diabetes, your HbA1c level is more than __ mmol/mol.
Really poorly controlled diabetes is indicated by an HbA1c level of more than __ mmol/mol.
What is a limitation of HbA1c?
Gives an average
so a person with wildly fluctuating hypers and hypos will have the same average as someone with an consistently elevated blood glucose level
Which type of insulin is preferred for treating T1 DM?
How is blood glucose most commonly monitored at the moment?
Pin prick test
What is the new development in glucose monitoring intended to replace pin prick testing?
Continuous glucose monitoring
How can you view the results of continuous glucose monitoring devices?
Phone (yours and others)
Pin prick testing measures ___ glucose.
Continuous glucose monitoring and flash monitoring measures ___ glucose.
Pin prick - blood glucose
Continuous / flash - interstitial glucose
The range of values for blood and interstitial glucose are different.
Which is more useful?
What is a possible side effect of insulin overdose or sulphonylurea therapy?
What is the alert value for blood glucose concentration in hypoglycaemia?
What are some symptoms of hypoglycaemia?
Impaired vision, weakness, aggression...
What is the definition of severe hypoglycaemia?
Inability to manage blood glucose yourself
Apart from insulin and glucagon, which other hormones are important in controlling blood glucose concentration?
Secretion of hormones controlling blood glucose concentration are controlled in what rhythm?
Which pancreatic endocrinopathy causes hypoglycaemia?
In people with Type 1 diabetes, the blood glucose threshold at which alpha cells produce glucagon (increases / decreases).
Aggressive treatment to prevent hypoglycaemia causes ___ and increases your risk of ___.
When does hypoglycaemia usually occur?
What is the rough dosage of insulin per kg?
0.5 units / kg
A high HbA1c is a marker of someone who doesn't ___ with their insulin regime.
What is impaired hypoglycaemia awareness?
Hypoglycaemia where the patient doesn't recognise the symptoms