6: Monitoring of diabetes and hypoglycaemia Flashcards Preview

Endocrine Week 2 2017/18 > 6: Monitoring of diabetes and hypoglycaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6: Monitoring of diabetes and hypoglycaemia Deck (38)
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1

Why is glycaemic control important in people with diabetes?

Better glycaemic control reduces your risk of microvascular complications

2

What are the three main microvascular complications of diabetes?

Neuropathy

Nephropathy

Retinopathy

3

An HbA1c level of 7% is equal to what in units?

53 mmol/mol

4

What are the main macrovascular complications of diabetes?

CVD

MI

Stroke

5

How do you explain HbA1c to a patient?

"Glycated haemoglobin"

i.e glucose sticking to your red blood cells, gives an indication of your blood sugar levels and therefore how well your diabetes is controlled

6

HbA1c indicates your average blood glucose level over a period of how long?

1.5 - 2 months

7

A normal (i.e non-diabetic) HbA1c level is less than __ mmol/mol.

42 mmol/mol

8

In pre-diabetes, HbA1c is between __ and __ mmol/mol.

42 and 47 mmol/mol

9

In uncontrolled diabetes, your HbA1c level is more than __ mmol/mol.

48 mmol/mol

10

Really poorly controlled diabetes is indicated by an HbA1c level of more than __ mmol/mol.

75 mmol/mol

11

What is a limitation of HbA1c?

Gives an average

so a person with wildly fluctuating hypers and hypos will have the same average as someone with an consistently elevated blood glucose level

12

Which type of insulin is preferred for treating T1 DM?

Analogue insulin

13

How is blood glucose most commonly monitored at the moment?

Pin prick test

14

What is the new development in glucose monitoring intended to replace pin prick testing?

Continuous glucose monitoring

15

How can you view the results of continuous glucose monitoring devices?

Computer

Phone (yours and others)

16

Pin prick testing measures ___ glucose.

Continuous glucose monitoring and flash monitoring measures ___ glucose.

Pin prick - blood glucose

Continuous / flash - interstitial glucose

17

The range of values for blood and interstitial glucose are different.

Which is more useful?

Interstitial glucose

18

What is a possible side effect of insulin overdose or sulphonylurea therapy?

Hypoglycaemia

19

What is the alert value for blood glucose concentration in hypoglycaemia?

4 mmol/mol

20

What are some symptoms of hypoglycaemia?

Tremor

Sweating

Anxiety

Dizziness

Hunger

Tachycardia...

Impaired vision, weakness, aggression...

21

What is the definition of severe hypoglycaemia?

Seizures

Unconsciousness

Inability to manage blood glucose yourself

22

Apart from insulin and glucagon, which other hormones are important in controlling blood glucose concentration?

Cortisol

Adrenaline

Growth hormone

23

Secretion of hormones controlling blood glucose concentration are controlled in what rhythm?

Circadian rhythm

24

Which pancreatic endocrinopathy causes hypoglycaemia?

Insulinoma

25

In people with Type 1 diabetes, the blood glucose threshold at which alpha cells produce glucagon (increases / decreases).

decreases

26

Aggressive treatment to prevent hypoglycaemia causes ___ and increases your risk of ___.

hyperglycaemia

microvascular complications

27

When does hypoglycaemia usually occur?

At night

28

What is the rough dosage of insulin per kg?

0.5 units / kg

29

A high HbA1c is a marker of someone who doesn't ___ with their insulin regime.

comply

30

What is impaired hypoglycaemia awareness?

Hypoglycaemia where the patient doesn't recognise the symptoms