2-Eyelids and anterior segment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2-Eyelids and anterior segment Deck (41)
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1

What are the best treatments for allergic conjunctivitis

cold compress, antihistamine drops, oral antihistamines

2

What is blepharitis

chronic, intermittent inflammation of eyelids

3

What are possible causes of blepharitis

anterior: infectious (S. Aureus) or seborrheic
posterior: meibomian gland dysfunction

4

How does blepharitis present clinically

red eyes
gritty FB sensation
burning sensation
tearing
crusty lashes
photophobia
+/- blurry vision

5

What will you see on blepharitis PE

diffuse conjunctival injection
inflamed red eyelid margins
Crusting or matting of lashes
plugged glands
collarettes

6

How do you treat blepharitis

warm compress, lid massage/hygiene
topical Abx (erythromycin)
oral Abx

7

What are the types of blepharitis

chalazion
hordeolum
stye

8

What is periorbital cellulitis

infection of soft tissue around eye (more common)
does NOT extend into orbit or globe

9

What causes periorbital cellulitis

external sources (blepharitis, insect bites, FB)
sometimes sinusitis

10

How does periorbital cellulitis present

eye pain, swelling, and erythema
NO fever, vision change, pain with eye movement

11

What is absent on PE for periorbital cellulitis

No proptosis
No ophthalmoplegia

12

How should you work periorbital cellulitis up if you are unsure what it is

Treat like orbital cellulitis!
CBC, cultures, discharge culture, CT orbit/sinus

13

How do you treat periorbital cellulitis

outpatient; empiric Abx (cover S. aureus, S. pneumo, MRSA
Suspected MRSA: oral Bactrim PLUS Amoxicillin and/or cefdinir, and/or cefpodoxime

14

What is orbital cellulitis

infection of fat and muscle surrounding globe
does NOT involve globe

15

What usually causes orbital cellulitis

extension of infection from paranasal sinuses (ethmoid)

16

How does orbital cellulitis present

eye pain
eyelid swelling/erythema
*vision changes
*fever
*pain with eye movement

17

What will you see on orbital cellulitis PE

proptosis
ophthalmoplegia
conjunctivitis
+/- discharge

18

How do you work up orbital cellulitis

CBC
cultures
discharge cultures
CT orbit/sinuses

19

How do you treat orbital cellulitis

hospitalize! consult ophtho
Immediate IV broad spectrum abx (vanco+ceftriaxone) until cultures come back
surgical drainage if abscess forms

20

Why do you start IC abx in orbital cellulitis

to prevent optic nerve damage
prevent infection spread to cavernous sinus, meninges, and brain

21

Where is the macula located in respect to the optic disc

macula is temporal to the optic disc

22

What is conjunctivitis

inflammation of conjunctiva (white) most commonly due to viral infection
(can also be caused by bacteria, allergies, chemical)

23

How do you transmit conjunctivitis

direct contact

24

What is the most common cause of viral conjunctivitis

Adenovirus

25

What are signs and symptoms of viral conjunctivitis

pharyngitis, fever, malaise, watery Dx, periauricular adenopathy

26

How do you treat viral conjunctivitis

cold compress for discomfort

27

What organisms commonly cause bacterial conjunctivitis

S. pneumo
H. influenza
Pseudomonas

28

What are the signs and symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis

copious discharge
eyes matted shut in morning

29

How do you treat bacterial conjunctivitis

erythromycin ointment
fluoroquinolone drops (-floxacin)

30

How does allergic conjunctivitis present

bilaterally (seasonal)
itchy, conjunctival erythema and chemises (swelling)