What is the most common Sphingolipid in the outer leaflet of the PM?
What is the location and function of Phosphatidylserine in the plasma membrane?
Phosphatidylserine is found in the inner leaflet in healthy cells, but during apoptosis, phosphatidylserine swaps to the outer leaflet.
This is because phosphatidylserine is used as a label for phagocytosis for dying cells.
Name the following for Niemann-Pick disease.
- Enzyme that is deficient
- Function of that enzyme
- Location of effect
- Hallmark sign
- Fatality rate for type A
- Acid Sphingomyelinase (A-SMase)
Lysosomal enzyme that breaks down Sphingomyelin
- Lysosomes of Liver, Spleen, CNS and Bone marrow
- Enlargement of Liver and Spleen, Neurological Damage
- Cherry red spot in the eye
- 85% by 18 months of age
The disease in which a mother's anti Rh+ antibodies attack the fetus is known as...
Detail the following for Spur Cell Anemia
- What cell is affected?
- What is wrong with these cells?
- What causes the actual anemia?
- Red Blood Cells
- They have decreased membrane fluidity due to elevated cholesterol
- Red blood cells lyse as they are squished through the capillaries of the spleen.
What sort of molecules can use Simple Diffusion?
Small molecules that are non-polar, or uncharged polar.
Small Nonpolar Examples
O2, N2, Ethanol, Diethylether, Benzene
Small polar uncharged Examples
Water, CO2, Urea, NH3
What is Mimantine / Namenda?
Glutamate receptor antagonist, which prevents opening of an ion channel. Treats Alzheimer's disease.
What residue is phosphorylated in P type ATPases?
What is unique about the use of ATP in ABC Transporters?
ATP is hydrolyzed, but does not phosphorylate the protien.
- What does SGLT 1 move? (2)
- Where does it move it?
- Where does it get the energy?
- D-Glucose and D-Galactose
- From the intestinal lumen into the intestinal epithelial cells
- Using the high amount of sodim outside the cell, and bringing it along to the inside.
- What transporter brings Fructose into the intestinal epithelial cells?
- What type of diffusion does this transporter use?
- GLUT 5
- Facillitated Diffusion (not active transport)
What transporter moves D-Glucose, D-Galactose, and Fructose, out of the intestinal epithelial cells, and into the blood?
For Cystic Fibrosis
- What protien is misfolded?
- What does that protein do?
- What does this defective protien cause?
- What are the symptoms?
- Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
Active Transport of Chloride from inside cells to the outside in airways and sweat ducts (using ATP)
- Buildup of Cl- inside the airway epithelial cells, which attracts Na+, which in turn causes water to stay in the cells, and not go to the surface mucous layer.
- Increased incidence of respiratory bacterial infections
- What is the etymology of the disease?
- What fails to transport?
- What does this cause?
- What is the presentation?
- Genetic: Autosomal Recessive
- Dibasic amino acids. Cystine, Arginine, Lysine, Ornithine
- Cystine crystals in the kidney
Renal Cholic, abdominal pain that comes in waves and is linked to kidney stones
For Hartnup disease
- What is the etymology?
- What is defective?
- What ends up being deficient as a result?
- What are the clinical findings?
- Genetic: Autosomal recessive
- Transporter for Non-Polar and Neutral amino acids, like Alanine, Valine, Threonine, Leucine, and Tryptophan.
- Serotonin, Melatonin, Niacin, and NAD+. All are synthesized from Tryptophan.
Cerebellar ataxia (lack of coordination), Photodermatitis, Photosensitivity, and Nystagmus.
What are Cardiotonic drugs used for?
Atrial Fibrilation and CHF
Cardiotonic drugs like ouabain and digoxin fall into what class?
What do cardiotonic drugs do?
Inhibit the Na+ / K+ -ATPase on cardiac myocytes. This results in more intracellular Na+ and therefore, a slower Sodium Calcium Exchanger. This means Calcium goes up, and so does contractions.