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Flashcards in 3. Fundamentals of Nutrition Deck (29):
1

What does Vitamin A do for the epithelium?

Regulates transcription by binding to intracellular zinc fingers, and causes normal differentiation of cells into specialized tissue.

2

What can cause Folate deficiency? (2)

Alcoholism

Pregnancy

Drugs (Phenytoin, Sulfonamides, Methotrexate)

3

What four important functions does Ascorbate (Vitamin C) perform?

  1. Collagen Synthesis
  2. Iron Absorbtion in GI tract
  3. Dopamine -> Norepinephrine
  4. Antioxidant

4

What are the four mentioned clinical manefestations of Pyridoxine deficiency?

  1. Sideroblastic Anemia (Cannot bind iron to heme, so you have unfinished blood cells)
  2. Cheilosis/Stomatitis
  3. Intertrigo
  4. Convulsions

5

What are the two B Vitamins, the deficiency of which can cause Homocysteinemia?

Folate, Cobalamin

6

What happens to the fetus if the mother becomes Folate deficient?

Neural tube defects such as Spina Bifida

7

What sort of reactions use Folate?

One-Carbon transfer (methylation) reactions.

8

What are the clinical presentations of Folate deficiency? (2+3)

  • Megaloblastic Anemia
  • Homocysteinemia
    • CVD, DVT, Thromboembolism, Stroke

9

What can cause Thiamine deficiency?

Alcoholism. It interferes with absorption

10

What interesting thing can cause Biotin deficiency?

Excessive raw egg consumption. Contains Avidin, which binds biotin.

11

What are the clinical manefestations of Cobalamin deficiency?

  • Megaloblastic Anemia
  • Neuropathies
  • Homocysteinemia
    • CVD, DVT, Stroke

12

What are the clinical manefestations of Biotin deficiency?

  1. Alopecia
  2. Rashes (seborrheic dermatits)
  3. Bowel Inflammation
  4. Muscle Pain

13

What converts Homocysteine to Methionine?

Cobalamin

14

What can cause a deficiency in every fat-soluable vitamin?

Fat malabsorption and liver cirrhosis

15

What are the clinical manefestations of Ascorbate deficiency? (7)

  1. Poor wound healing
  2. Bruising easily
  3. Painful glossitis
  4. Perifollicular hemorrage
  5. Bleeding Gums
  6. Increased bleeding time
  7. Anemia

16

What causes Cobalamin deficiency? (4)

  • Pernicious Anemia
  • Long-Term Vegitarian Diet
  • Resection of the Terminal Ileum
  • Chronic Pancreatitis

17

Pantothenate is a part of what important coenzyme?

Coenzyme-A (CoA)

18

What is Pyridoxine primarily responsible for?

Aminotransferase Reactions (ALT and AST, both of which are markers of Liver Disease)

19

What is the clinical manifestation of Niacin deficiency and related Sx?

Pellagra: Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatits, Death

(The 4 D's of Pellagra)

20

What are the three mentioned clinical manifestations of Riboflavin deficiency?

  1. Corneal Neovascularization
  2. Cheilosis Stomatitis
  3. Magenta colored tongue.

(Think eyes and mouth: R-eye-bo flavor-in)

21

What is Biotin used as?

Cofactor for Carboxylation enzymes

22

What are the clinical manefestations of Vitamin A deficiency? (3+2)

(Eyes)

  • Night Blindness
  • Metaplasia of corneal epithelium
  • Xeropthalmia

(Epithelium)

  • Follicular hyperkeratosis
  • Frequent infections

23

What is Riboflavin mostly involved in?

Redox reactions

24

What is Niacin synthesized from?

Tryptophan

25

What can cause Pyridoxine deficiency?

Isoniazid therapy

26

What are the two major functions of Vitamin A?

  1. Vision
  2. Epithelium Maintenance

27

What two things is Pantothenate responsible for primarily?

Acylation and Acetylation (Think CoA)

28

What are the three main functions of Vitamin D?

  1. GI: Calcium binding protien synthesis and phosphate absorption
  2. Kidneys: Calcium reabsorption and phosphate secretion
  3. Bone: Acts on Osteoblast receptors, activates Osteoclasts, and causes bone resorption.

29

What converts Methylmalonyl-CoA to Succinyl-CoA?

Cobalamin