What is memory?
The ability to store and retrieve information
Memory allows us to ___ from past experience.
What are the three broad types of memory?
How long does each last for?
Sensory memory (< 1 sec)
Short-term memory (< 1 min)
Long-term memory (> 30 mins, up to a lifetime)
What are the two subtypes of long-term memory?
Explicit (i.e your conscious memory)
Implicit (i.e your unconscious memory)
What is contained within your explicit long-term memory?
Events and experiences
What is contained within your implicit long-term memory?
Unconscious behaviours and routines are contained within your ___ memory.
Facts and experiences are contained within your ___ memory.
What do you need to do in order to learn new information?
If you're concentrating on learning something new, it is then ___ in your memory.
as words, sound, feelings etc.
What do you need to do to bring information back into your short-term / working memory?
What is amnesia?
What are the two types of amnesia?
Describe the memory loss experienced in each,
Anterograde (loss of memories after a disease or illness starts)
Retrograde (loss of memories preceding the onset of a disease or illness)
What are some presenting complaints of patients with a memory problem?
Frequently losing things
Forgetting to do important tasks
Losing track of conversations
Memory loss occurs with ___ and is normal.
What is the term used to describe memory loss somewhere between age-related forgetfulness and dementia?
Mild cognitive impairment
In the elderly, it is important to differentiate dementia from which mood disorders?
which are very common and cause a "pseudodementia" which is treatable
Dementia is a chronic, progressive decline in cortical function.
Which aspects of cortical function are affected?
What is the most common cause of dementia?
What is the second most common cause of dementia?
How would you describe the onset of
To assess a patient's current cognitive state, you need to know what their ____ cognition was like.
Which scoring system is used to assess patients for delirium?
What is a
b) abnormal MMSE score?
a) > 27/30
b) < 24/30
Which scoring systems can be used for
b) in-depth screening for dementia?
a) MMSE, MOCA
b) ACE-III, GPCOG
If a patient is screened and their cognitive score is normal, can they have dementia?
Some types present with other symptoms before cognitive impairment e.g frontotemporal dementia, which presents as personality / behavioural change initially
If a cognitive examination is inconclusive or you have doubts about the results, what can you refer a patient for?