What is the triad of signs seen in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity are all normal in young children.
When can a diagnosis of ADHD be made?
When signs are abnormal for a child's age and impairing function
The triad of signs seen in ADHD must ___ a patient's function.
Behaviour seen in ADHD (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity) are seen (in certain social situations / regardless of social context).
regardless of social context
i.e across a variety of social situations
What is the prevalence of ADHD in the population?
As with ASD, ADHD has a strong ___ component.
What are some perinatal (pre-birth) factors which are associated with a diagnosis of ADHD?
Substance use (alcohol, smoking and drugs)
Birth complications (e.g hypoxia, ARDS)
If missed during childhood, adults will likely have a presentation which falls (above / below) the diagnostic criteria for ADHD.
below diagnostic criteria
but they DO have ADHD
Which part of the brain is thought to be affected in ADHD?
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
(decision making, judgement...
The levels of which neurotransmitters are reduced in ADHD?
What is the diagnostic criteria for diagnosing ADHD in
a) 6+ inattention symptoms AND 6+ hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms before the age of 5
b) 5+ "" AND 5+ "" (lower threshold as symptoms lessen with age)
Both affecting daily function
In the diagnosis of ADHD, it is important that symptoms have an effect on the patient's ___ ___.
Before drugs are considered, what therapies can be used to manage ADHD?
Psychoeducation (for parents and patient)
Social skills training
Dietary changes (avoid stimulants)
Which drugs are used first line to treat ADHD?
Can you name an example?
How do they work?
Block dopamine and NA reuptake, increasing levels in the frontal cortex
What is a well-known stimulant drug used first-line to treat ADHD?
How does methylphenidate work?
Blocks dopamine and NA reuptake, increasing levels in the frontal cortex
Which SNRI is used second-line to treat ADHD?
Which classes of drug are used
b) second-line to treat ADHD?
Which class of drug is used third-line to treat ADHD?
How do alpha agonists work to treat ADHD?
Stimulate sympathetic nerves, increase NA levels in frontal lobe
Is medication effective in the treatment of ADHD?