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Psychiatry Week 4 2018/19 > 5: ADHD > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5: ADHD Deck (22)
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1

What is the triad of signs seen in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Inattention

Hyperactivity

Impulsivity

2

Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity are all normal in young children.

When can a diagnosis of ADHD be made?

When signs are abnormal for a child's age and impairing function

3

The triad of signs seen in ADHD must ___ a patient's function.

impair

4

Behaviour seen in ADHD (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity) are seen (in certain social situations / regardless of social context).

regardless of social context

i.e across a variety of social situations

5

What is the prevalence of ADHD in the population?

5%

6

As with ASD, ADHD has a strong ___ component.

genetic component

7

What are some perinatal (pre-birth) factors which are associated with a diagnosis of ADHD?

Viral illness

Substance use (alcohol, smoking and drugs)

Prematurity

Birth complications (e.g hypoxia, ARDS)

8

If missed during childhood, adults will likely have a presentation which falls (above / below) the diagnostic criteria for ADHD.

below diagnostic criteria

but they DO have ADHD

9

Which part of the brain is thought to be affected in ADHD?

Frontal lobe

10

What is the function of the frontal lobe?

Executive function

(decision making, judgement...

11

The levels of which neurotransmitters are reduced in ADHD?

Dopamine

Serotonin

Noradrenaline

12

What is the diagnostic criteria for diagnosing ADHD in

a) children

b) adults?

a) 6+ inattention symptoms AND 6+ hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms before the age of 5

b) 5+ "" AND 5+ "" (lower threshold as symptoms lessen with age)

Both affecting daily function

13

In the diagnosis of ADHD, it is important that symptoms have an effect on the patient's ___ ___.

daily function

14

Before drugs are considered, what therapies can be used to manage ADHD?

Psychoeducation (for parents and patient)

Social skills training

Sleep hygiene

Dietary changes (avoid stimulants)

15

Which drugs are used first line to treat ADHD?

Can you name an example?

How do they work?

Stimulant drugs

Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

Block dopamine and NA reuptake, increasing levels in the frontal cortex

16

What is a well-known stimulant drug used first-line to treat ADHD?

Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

17

How does methylphenidate work?

Blocks dopamine and NA reuptake, increasing levels in the frontal cortex

18

Which SNRI is used second-line to treat ADHD?

Atomoxetine

19

Which classes of drug are used

a) first-line

b) second-line to treat ADHD?

a) Stimulants

b) SNRI

20

Which class of drug is used third-line to treat ADHD?

Alpha agonist

21

How do alpha agonists work to treat ADHD?

Stimulate sympathetic nerves, increase NA levels in frontal lobe

22

Is medication effective in the treatment of ADHD?

Yes