2. Obstructive Airway Disease Flashcards Preview

BDS2 BAMS Respiratory > 2. Obstructive Airway Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2. Obstructive Airway Disease Deck (45):
1

General respiratory disease symptoms (5)

Cough
Wheeze (expiration)
Stridor (inspiration)
SoB (distress on effort)
Pain (general/inspiration)

2

General respiratory disease signs (5)

Chest movement with respiration
Rate of respiration
Air entry (symmetrical, reduced)
Vocal resonance
Percussion notes (resonant, dull)

3

Normal rate of respiration

12-15 breaths/min

4

General respiratory disease investigations (5)

Sputum exam
CXR
Pulmonary function
Bronchoscopy
VQ scan

5

Pulmonary function tests (3)

PEFR - max. flow rate
FEV1 - forced expiratory volume/one second
FEV1/VC - measurement of respiratory function

6

Types of respiratory diseases (4)

Infections
Airflow obstructions
Gas exchange failure
Tumours

7

Types of respiratory infections

Pneumonia

8

Types of respiratory airflow obstructions (3)

Asthma
COPD
Restrictive pulmonary change

9

Types of respiratory gas exchange failure (3)

Reduced surface area
Fibrosis
Fluid

10

Chronic airflow obstruction definition and examples (2)

Reversible airway obstructions
Asthma
COPD

11

Chronic airflow obstruction exacerbations (3)

Infections
Exercise
Cold air

12

Asthma mechanism (3)

Airway smooth muscle constriction
Inflammation of mucosa
Increased mucus secretion

13

Asthma symptoms (3)

Cough
Wheeze
SoB

14

Asthma triggers (5)

Infections
Environmental stimuli (dust, smoke, chemicals, asbestos)
Cold air
Exercise
Atopy

15

First stage of asthma treatment

Occasional B-agonist only

16

Second stage of asthma treatment

Low-dose inhaled steroid (or Na chromoglycate)

17

Third stage of asthma treatment

High-dose inhaled steroid

18

Fourth stage of asthma treatment (3)

Long-acting B-agonist, theophylline, anti-muscarinic drugs

19

Fifth stage of asthma treatment

Oral steroid

20

Types of respiratory drugs (6)

B-adrenergic agonists
Anticholinergic drugs
Corticosteriods
Leukotrine inhibitors
Chromones
Theophylline

21

Action of B-agonists

Relax smooth muscle by reducing bronchoconstriction and reducing resting bronchial tone

22

Action of anticholinergic drugs

Reduce basal tone

23

Action of theophylline (3)

Cause adenosine inhibition
May cause CNS stimulation, diuretics and arrhythmias

24

When are corticosteroids used

If B2-agonists are used >3 times each week

25

Corticosteroid side effects (2)

Adrenal suppression
Osteoporosis (potentially)

26

COPD is a combination of (3)

Chronic obstructive airway disease (asthma and emphysema)
Chronic bronchitis
Emphysema

27

What is COPD (2)

Mixed airway reversible obstruction
Destructive lung disease

28

Definition and outcome of emphysema (2)

Destruction of alveoli
Causes dilatation of others to fill the space

29

How can COPD progress to respiratory failure (2)

Reduced surface area for gas exchange
Thickening of alveolar mucosal barrier

30

COPD results in poor ventilation due to (2)

Airway narrowing (potentially reversible)
Restrictive lung disease

31

Causes of COPD (3)

Smoking
Environmental lung damage
Hereditary (emphysema)

32

Occupational lung disease can lead to respiratory failure from (2)

Fibrosis (dust related) - coal, silicon, beryllium, asbestos, silica
Tumours - asbestos (mesothelioma)

33

COPD management (6)

Smoking cessation
Long-acting bronchodilator
Inhaled steroids (if FEV < 50%)
Systemic steroids
Oxygen support
Pulmonary rehabilitation therapy

34

Types of respiratory failure (2)

Type 1
Type 2

35

What is type 1 respiratory failure

Hypoxaemia (low oxygen)

36

What is type 2 respiratory failure

Hypercapnia (ventilation failure)

37

Why does type 2 respiratory failure occur

Due to airway blockage or narrowing

38

What is respiratory failure due to (2)

Failure of oxygenation
Failure of ventilation

39

When does failure of oxygenation occur (2)

When PaO2 < 8kPa or
When SaO2 < 90%

40

What does failure of oxygenation result in (3)

Poor alveolar ventilation
Diffusion abnormality
VQ (ventilation perfusion) mismatch

41

When does failure of ventilation occur (2)

When PaCO2 > 6.7kPa
Only in acute respiratory failure
(20% reduction in ventilation required)

42

What does chronic ventilation failure result in

Renal compensation from acidosis

43

Chronic ventilation failure involves contributions from (3)

Reduced compliance
Airway obstruction
Muscle dysfunction

44

Normal breathing control (2)

CO2 drive controls ventilation
SaO2 usually fine

45

COPD breathing control (2)

Hypoxia drives ventilation
CO2 tolerance