5. Respiratory Tract Infections Flashcards Preview

BDS2 BAMS Respiratory > 5. Respiratory Tract Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5. Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (32):
1

URTI infections (3)

Sinusitis (rhinosinusitis)
Tonsillitis
Pharyngitis

2

Causes of viral URTIs (5)

Rhinovirus
Adenovirus
Parainfluenza viruses
Influenza viruses
Epstein Barr virus (glandular fever)

3

Main cause of bacterial URTIs

S. pyogenes

4

Rhinovirus transmission (2)

Direct contact
Brief exposure

5

Cause of strep sore throat

Group A S. progenies (25% of all cases)

6

Group A strep virulence factors (4)

Pyrogenic exotoxins
Streptolysins
Hyaluronidase
M protein

7

Complications of strep sore throat (5)

Otitis media or sinusitis
Scarlet fever
Rheumatic fever
Rheumatic heart disease
Acute glomerulonephritis

8

Definition of bronchitis

Inflammation of tracheobronchial tree

9

Types of bronchitis

Acute - usually during winter months, viral
Chronic - viral/bacterial, affects 10-25% of population

10

Definition of chronic bronchitis

Productive cough on most days during at least three months in each of two successive years

11

Predisposing factors to chronic bronchitis (4)

Smoking
Infection
Air pollution
Allergies

12

Causes of bronchitis (2)

90% - viral
10% - bacterial

13

Bronchitis treatment (3)

Decongestants
NSAIDS
Antibiotics (where appropriate)

14

Complications of untreated viral infections

Secondary bacterial infections

15

TB mechanisms (3)

Microbiological
Infectivity
Oro-facial implications

16

Microbiological TB features (3)

Acid fast, aerobic, non-motile, non-encapsulated bacilli
Lipid wall component
Resistant to phagocytosis destruction

17

TB infectivity features (2)

Spread by droplet nuclei
Ingestion/skin contact rare

18

TB oro-facial implications (4)

Chronic painless ulcer
Primary oral lesions
Cervical lymphadenitis
Primary jaw TB

19

TB treatment (2)

Triple therapy
Streptomycin, para-aminosalicylic acid and isoniazid

20

Long-term TB treatment and benefits (2)

DOTS (direct observed treatment short course)
95% cure rate
Prevents transmission

21

Pneumonia definition

Inflammatory condition of the lung, especially alveoli

22

Causes of pneumonia (2)

Typically infection but multifactorial
S. pneumoniae (community-acquired), S. aureus (hospital-acquired)

23

Features of pneumonia (9)

Sudden/insidious onset
Fevers
Rigours
Malaise
SoB
Rapid, shallow breathing
Cyanosis
Cough producing purulent sputum
Consolidation of lungs clinically and radiographically

24

Function of pneumolysin (2)

Inhibits activity of ciliated cells
Cytotocic for alveolar and endothelial cells

25

Action of pneumolysin (3)

Activates classical complement binding pathway (by binding to Fc of an antibody)
Causes inflammation in lungs, decreases effectiveness of PMNs
Stimulates monocytes to produce cytokines

26

Clinical management of pneumonia (2)

IV antibiotics and hospitalisation
Vaccination

27

IV antibiotics and hospitalisation management of pneumonia (3)

Beta-lactams
Erythromycin
Quinolones

28

Most common type of pneumonia

Legionnaire's disease

29

Legionnaire's transmission (2)

Inhalation of aerosols (contaminated water)
Aspiration of oropharyngeal colonised bacteria

30

Legionnaire's symptoms (5)

Flu-like symptoms
Progression to severe pneumonia symptoms
Mental confusion
Renal failure
GI symptoms

31

Legionnaire's diagnosis (3)

Micro culture
CXR
Antibody level measurements

32

Legionnaire's treatment (2)

Erythromycin
Unresponsive to penicillin