2 - The Christian Church in the First Millenium Flashcards Preview

Music History I - The Ancient and Medieval Worlds > 2 - The Christian Church in the First Millenium > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2 - The Christian Church in the First Millenium Deck (55)
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1

What was the Edict of Milan and when was it given?

an edict by Constantine in 313 AD legalizing Christianity and allowing the church to own property

1

What emperor made Christianity the state religion? (392 AD)

Emperor Theodosius

2

What is a psalm?

a poem of praise

3

What is cantillation?

chanting sacred texts

4

What Jewish musical tradition carried over to Christian worship services?

singing psalms assigned to a particular day or festival

5

What was the advantage of chanting scripture over speaking it?

sung words carried better in big spaces

6

What principle of Plato's regarding music did the "church fathers" adhere to?

beautiful things exist to remind us of divine beauty (rather than simply for enjoyment)

7

Why did most church fathers condemn instrumental music?

they believed that music without words was unable to open the mind to Christian teachings

8

Christianity split into what two churches in 1054?

the Roman Catholic Church and the Byzantine Church

9

What is a rite?

the set of practices that defines a particular Christian tradition, including a church calendar, a liturgy, and a reparatory of chant

10

What is liturgy?

a body of texts and ritual actions assigned to each service

11

What is plainchant or chant?

unison song with melodies for prescribed texts

12

What are chant dialects?

different regional repertoires

13

What are echoi?

eight modes associated with Byzantine chant

14

What is centonization?

a process used in Byzantine chant of composing a new melody by combining standard motives and formulas

15

What was the most important center for the western church outside Rome?

Milan

16

What were the songs of the Milanese rite known as?

Ambrosian chant

17

Why did the church standardize what was said and sung in services?

to consolidate centralized control

18

What was the Schola Cantorum?

the choir that sang when the pope officiated at observances

19

According to legend, how did Gregory I receive chants?

they were dictated by the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove

20

Without notation and with hundreds of chants, how do some scholars suggest melodies were passed down?

that chants were actually improvised within strict conventions

21

Why was the church interested in developing notation?

so melodies would be standard throughout the church, without individual or regional variation

22

What Latin word does 'neume' come from?

'neuma', or 'gesture'

23

Where were neumes placed in the score?

above the words

24

What did neumes indicate?

the number of notes for each syllable and whether the melody ascended, descended or repeated a pitch

25

Why did chants notated with neumes still have to be learned by ear?

neumes did not specify actual pitches or intervals, they only served as a reminder of the general shape of the melody

26

What are heightened or diastematic neumes?

neumes placed at varying heights above the text to indicate relative size of intervals, as well as direction

27

When a line began being used to indicate a specific pitch for the others to orient around, why did they often choose C or F?

because of their position just above semitones

28

What did C lines and F lines evolve into?

our modern clef signs

29

Who suggested an arrangement of lines and spaces?

Guido de Arezzo (ca. 991 - after 1033)