Flashcards in 20. swine Deck (32):
What order,family, genus,and species are swine a part of?
Order: Artiodactyla (even or cloven-hoofed)
mature (intact) male
True or False
Swine is NOT the world's dominant meat-producing species
Pork accounts for 38% of the world's meat production
How much pork does the US export?
they can sell:
1) Live Hogs & Pigs
3) Variety Meats
4) Pork Lard, Fats, and Oils
Who does the US export to?
Japan, Mexico, China
Who does the US import from?
Canada and Denmark
What was the purpose of the Swine Industry?
to use surplus grain production and high-quality by-product feeds to produce meat.
monogastric digestive tract makes them the most efficient converters of grain to red meat
Swine Management Goals
Optimize productivity and product quality
Minimize production costs
Minimize environmental impact (waste & odor)
Optimize animal welfare
History of Swine
Originated 20 to 30 million years ago
Domesticated 8,000- 10,000 years ago
Chinese and European origin
who and when did this person bring pigs to the Western hemisphere?
Swine in Colonial times
Hardy and prolific
Central to the colonial diet
“Root hog or die!”
Rounded up and slaughtered when they were about 200 pounds (1-2 years old)
which city became known as the center of activity for hogs?
Chicago by 1860
What were some difference in swine farming then and now?
produced for fat
diet on forage to ear corn
weaning age: 6-8 weeks
produced for lean meat
weaning age: 3 weeks
pig farms then and now
then: many small farms
now: less large farms
What is the timeline of a pig's life?
breeding --> gestation (3mo, 3 wks, 3 days=**114 days**) --> farrowing (weaning=10-15 lbs) -- nursery (>12-40lbs) -->
grower (40-120 lbs) --> finisher (120 to 250 lbs)
5 Primary Types of Swine Operations
1. Purebred or Seedstock operations.
2. Farrow to wean.
4. Farrow-to-finish operation.
5. Integrated corporate production.
Purebred or Seedstock Operations
Similar to farrow-to-finish except the end product is primarily breeding boars and gilts or show pigs, which may be purebred or controlled crossbreeds
<1% of total hogs raised in the US
Breeding herd (sows and boars) produces:
(1) Early-weaned pigs at 10–15 lbs
(2) Feeder pigs at 35–50 lbs
Feeder pigs (range from 30 to 90 lbs) are purchased and then grown to market weight
A breeding herd is maintained to produce piglets that are raised all the way to market weight on the same farm.
Integrated Corporate Operations
Farrow-to-finish operations that often have their own
VERTICAL INTEGRATION - One company (or owner) has two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies or owners.
several changes caused by the growth of integrated corporate swine production
1. Ownership of pigs has shifted to facilities in which more pigs are owned by fewer people.
2. Along with the reduction in # of operations has come an increase in the size of operations.
3. Increased use of technology to increase productivity.
Which state has the highest # of the nation's pigs?
Iowa, and its border states plus Indiana and Kansas, contain 70% of the nation’s hogs
North Carolina is the 2nd largest swine producing state
Herd Health Plan
Coordinated health program for achieving & maintaining optimal health & production goals.
1) Health Protocol
7) Maintenance and Analysis of Records
Procedures designed to:
Minimize the risk of disease transmission from
sources outside the production unit.
Reduce the transmission of dz among groups of
pigs on the same farm.
Genetics and Breeding Programs
1) High # offspring for selection
1 sow = 30 piglets in 1 year
2) Short generation interval
Rapid maturing rate (hit puberty @5-8 months and are bred for the first time by 7-9 months)