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Flashcards in 20. swine Deck (32):
1

What order,family, genus,and species are swine a part of?

Order: Artiodactyla (even or cloven-hoofed)
Family: Suidae
Genus: Sus
Species: domesticus

2

birthing processing

farrowing

3

newborn

piglet

4

immature female

gilt

5

mature female

sow

6

castrated male

barrow

7

mature (intact) male

boar

8

True or False
Swine is NOT the world's dominant meat-producing species

False

Pork accounts for 38% of the world's meat production

9

How much pork does the US export?

~20%

they can sell:
1) Live Hogs & Pigs
2) Pork
3) Variety Meats
4) Pork Lard, Fats, and Oils
5) Skins

10

Who does the US export to?

Japan, Mexico, China

11

Who does the US import from?

Canada and Denmark

12

What was the purpose of the Swine Industry?

to use surplus grain production and high-quality by-product feeds to produce meat.

monogastric digestive tract makes them the most efficient converters of grain to red meat

13

Swine Management Goals

Optimize productivity and product quality
Minimize production costs
Minimize environmental impact (waste & odor)
Optimize animal welfare

14

History of Swine

Originated 20 to 30 million years ago
Domesticated 8,000- 10,000 years ago
Chinese and European origin

15

who and when did this person bring pigs to the Western hemisphere?

Christopher Columbus
1493

16

Swine in Colonial times

Hardy and prolific
Central to the colonial diet
Roamed free
Excellent foragers
“Root hog or die!”
Rounded up and slaughtered when they were about 200 pounds (1-2 years old)

17

which city became known as the center of activity for hogs?

Chicago by 1860

18

What were some difference in swine farming then and now?

Then:
produced for fat
housed outside
diet on forage to ear corn
weaning age: 6-8 weeks

Now:
produced for lean meat
confined housing
diet: corn-soy
weaning age: 3 weeks

19

pig farms then and now

then: many small farms
now: less large farms

20

What is the timeline of a pig's life?

breeding --> gestation (3mo, 3 wks, 3 days=**114 days**) --> farrowing (weaning=10-15 lbs) -- nursery (>12-40lbs) -->
grower (40-120 lbs) --> finisher (120 to 250 lbs)

21

5 Primary Types of Swine Operations

1. Purebred or Seedstock operations.
2. Farrow to wean.
3. Finishing.
4. Farrow-to-finish operation.
5. Integrated corporate production.

22

Purebred or Seedstock Operations

Similar to farrow-to-finish except the end product is primarily breeding boars and gilts or show pigs, which may be purebred or controlled crossbreeds

<1% of total hogs raised in the US

23

Farrow-to-Wean Operations

Breeding herd (sows and boars) produces:
(1) Early-weaned pigs at 10–15 lbs
or
(2) Feeder pigs at 35–50 lbs

24

Finishing Operation

Feeder pigs (range from 30 to 90 lbs) are purchased and then grown to market weight

25

Farrow-to-Finish Operation

A breeding herd is maintained to produce piglets that are raised all the way to market weight on the same farm.

26

Integrated Corporate Operations

Farrow-to-finish operations that often have their own
seed-stock production.

VERTICAL INTEGRATION - One company (or owner) has two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies or owners.

27

several changes caused by the growth of integrated corporate swine production

1. Ownership of pigs has shifted to facilities in which more pigs are owned by fewer people.
2. Along with the reduction in # of operations has come an increase in the size of operations.
3. Increased use of technology to increase productivity.

28

Which state has the highest # of the nation's pigs?

Iowa (31%)
Iowa, and its border states plus Indiana and Kansas, contain 70% of the nation’s hogs

North Carolina is the 2nd largest swine producing state

29

Herd Health Plan

Coordinated health program for achieving & maintaining optimal health & production goals.
1) Health Protocol
2) Reproduction
3) Nutrition
4) Housing
5) Production
6) Marketing
7) Maintenance and Analysis of Records
8) BIOSECURITY

30

Biosecurity

Procedures designed to:
Minimize the risk of disease transmission from
sources outside the production unit.

Reduce the transmission of dz among groups of
pigs on the same farm.

31

Genetics and Breeding Programs

1) High # offspring for selection
1 sow = 30 piglets in 1 year

2) Short generation interval
Rapid maturing rate (hit puberty @5-8 months and are bred for the first time by 7-9 months)
Short gestation

32

Standards for the Ideal Market Hog

Hogs marketed @270 lbs in 156 days for barrows and
164 days for gilts.