20 - The Endocrine Glands Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 20 - The Endocrine Glands Deck (47)
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1

-Suspended by stalk from hypothalamus at base of brain
-prolactin secretion controlled by prolactin inhibitory factor
-thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates release of prolactin and thyroid hormones

Pituitary Gland

2

Growth hormone
Prolactin
TSH
ACTH
LH

Anterior Pituitary Lobe Hormones

3

TSH

Thyroid - stimulating hormone

4

ACTH

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone

5

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone

6

LH

Luteinizing hormone

7

ADH
Oxytocin

Posterior Pituitary Lobe hormones

8

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone - causes more concentrated urine

9

stimulates uterine contractions and milk production

oxytocin

10

-deficiency of growth hormone
-causes retarded growth and development

pituitary dwarfism

11

diabetes insipidus

-failure of posterior lobe to secrete ADH or failure of kidney to respond to ADH
-unable to absorb water
-causes excretion of large amounts of diluted urine
-may be caused by a pituitary tumor

12

growth hormone overproduction

-caused by pituitary adenoma
-causes gigantism in children
-causes acromegaly in adults

13

prolactin overproduction

-result from small pituitary adenoma
-causes amenorrhea and galactorrhea

14

galactorrhea

secretion of milk by breast not associated with pregnancy or normal lactation

15

amenorrhea

absence of menstrual cycle

16

tumor that produces hormones that cause clinical manifestations

functional tumors

17

tumor that does not produce hormones but exerts other effects

nonfunctional tumors

18

-controls rate of metabolic processes
-required for normal growth and development

actions of the thyroid gland

19

-rapid pulse
-increased metabolism
-hyperactive reflexes
-emotional lability
-GI effect: diarrhea
-warm, moist skin

Hyperthyroidism

20

-slow pulse
-decreased metabolism
-sluggish reflexes
-placid and phlegmatic
GI effect: constipation
-cold, dry skin

hypothyroidism

21

-thyroid gland enlarges to increases hormone secretion
Causes:
-inadequate hormone output
-iodine deficiency
-enzyme deficiency
-inefficient enzyme function
-increased hormone requirements
Treatment: administer thyroid hormone; may need surgical removal

Nontoxic Goiter

22

hyperthyroidism

-toxic goiter or graves disease
-caused by antithyroid antibody that stimulates gland
-mimics effects of TSH but not subject to normal control mechanisms
Treatment:
-antithyroid drugs, thyroidectomy, large doses of radioactive iodine

23

hypothyroidism in adults

-myxedema
-causes metabolic slowing
-treatment: administration of thyroid hormone

24

hypothyroidism in an infant

-cretinism
-causes impaired growth and CNS development
-causes hypometabolism
-early diagnosis and treatment required for normal development

25

-auntoantibody destroys thyroid tissue
-results in hypothyroidism
-an immunologic reaction, not infection
-cellular infiltration from an immunologic reaction between antigen and antibody

Hashimoto Thyroiditis (or Chronic Thyroiditis)

26

Parathyroid glands actions

regulates calcium level
-blood calcium level is in equilibrium with calcium in the bone

27

low calcium in the blood causes...

tetany, increased neuromuscular excitability causing spasm of skeletal muscle

28

high calcium in blood causes...

lowered neuromuscular excitability

29

-usually from a hormone-secreting parathyroid adenoma

hyperparathyroidism

30

effects of hyperparathyroidism

-hypercalcemia
-renal calculi
-calcium deposits in tissues
-decalcification of bone from excessive calcium withdrawn from bone