22 - The Musculoskeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 22 - The Musculoskeletal System Deck (19)
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1

direct formation of bone by osteoblasts without prior formation of a cartilage model

intramembranous bone formation

2

formation of bone as, first, a cartilage model that is then reabsorbed and converted into bone

endochondral bone formation

3

achondroplasia

-faulty endochondral bone formation
-imparied growth of extremities and formation of skull bones
-causes dwarfism with disproportionately short limbs

4

congenital malposition of foot. in most common type, foot is turned inward at ankle and heel is elevated.

clubfoot (talipes)

5

-young, middle aged, female
-systemic disease with major effects in joints
-ingrowth of inflammatory tissue over cartilage
-affects small joints of hands and feet
-autoantibody against gamma globulin

Rheumatoid arthritis

6

-adult, older persons, both genders
-wear and tear degeneration of articular cartilage
-affects major weight-bearing joints

osteoarthritis

7

-middle aged, male
-disturbance of purine metabolism; uric acid and crystals in joints
-affects small joints; joint at base of big toe often affected

gout

8

simple fracture

bone broken in only two pieces

9

comminuted fracture

bone shattered into many pieces

10

compound fracture

overlying skin is broken with potential for infection

11

pathologic fracture

fracture through a diseased area in the bone

12

osteomyelitis

-infection of bone and adjacent marrow cavity as a result of bacteria
-mostly in children
-in adults, infection may spread to joints

13

chondrosarcoma

malignant tumor of cartilage

14

osteosarcoma

malignant tumor of bone forming cells

15

generalized thinning and demineralization of entire skeletal system
-most common in postmenopausal women
-loss of estrogen accelerates rate of bone reabsorption

osteoporosis

16

When the lower part of the sternum is displaced posteriorly, sometimes called "funnel chest", which is a relatively common abnormality occurring in about 1 in 300-400 white males less often in white females and other ethnic groups.

Pectus excavatum

17

A relatively common disease when connective tissue fibers are constructed from a precursor protein called fibrillin, and a mutation of the gene coding for fibrillin (FBN 1) gives rise to a group of abnormalities grouped together.

Marfan Syndrome

18

Acetylcholine

A chemical secreted by nerve endings that activates neurons or muscle cells

19

Myasthenia gravis

An autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal fatigueability of muscle and caused by an autoantibody that damages the acetylcholine receptors at the myoneural junction