Chapter 5: Sex Hormones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Sex Hormones Deck (55)
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1
Q

What are the three classes of sex hormones and examples of each?

A
1. Progestins
L> progesterone 
2. Estrogens 
L> estradiol 
3. Androgens 
L> testosterone 
L> 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone
2
Q

What is a catalyzing enzyme?

A
  • enzymes that do not have a direct influence on the body but trigger things
3
Q

What are two examples of catalyzing enzymes?(their function as well)

A
  1. Aromatase
    L> converts testosterone to estradiol
  2. 5-alpha-reductase
    L> converts testosterone to the more potent 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
4
Q

Testosterone levels vary _______.

A
  • cyclically
5
Q

What are the two different testosterone cycles in men?

A
  1. shorter cycle: 2-4 hours, 3 to 4 fold variability

2. longer cycle: 24 hours- higher midnight to noon than noon to midnight.

6
Q

Explain testosterone levels in women?

  • variability
  • peak concentration
A
  1. 2-fold variability over the course of the menstrual cycle
  2. peak concentrations around the time of ovulation
    (more likely to get prego)
7
Q

Testosterone has a short/long half life?

A

short

8
Q

What is the half life of testosterone?

function?

A
  • 45 mins

L> this allows blood levels to change fairly quickly and impact on target tissues occurs in less than an hour.

9
Q

Estradiol is synthesized from what and in which sexes?

A
  • testosterone

- both

10
Q

Where does the conversion of estradiol occur?

A
  • testis
  • ovary
  • brain (see fig 5.3)
11
Q

What role does the conversion of estradiol to testosterone play in?

A
  • prenatal sexual differentiation
12
Q

Progesterone is a male or female sex hormone?

L>but??

A
  • female

L>BUT it occurs in small amounts in males but role in sexual behaviour is unknown

13
Q

Sex steroids act by activating specific what?

L> function?

A
  • receptor molecules

- L>steroid receptors control gene expression and affect the cells structure, function or growth.

14
Q

Proteins and peptide hormones are products of what?

A
  • genes
15
Q

Give four examples of proteins and peptide hormones.

A
  1. Oxytocin
  2. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone
  3. Prolactin
  4. Growth Hormone
16
Q

Oxytocin

  • synthesized where?/stored?
  • reaches high levels when?
  • thought to enhance what?
A
  • synthesized n the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary before release (fig 5.4)
  • reaches high levels during breast feeding, childbirth and orgasm
    L> thought to enhance orgasm and to facilitate interpersonal bonding and trust
17
Q

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

  • synthesized where?
  • function?
A
  • synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the pituitary
  • stimulates the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
18
Q

Prolactin

- function?

A
  • prepares the breast for lactation

- may promote parental behaviour…not 100% sure though

19
Q

Growth hormone

- function

A
  • stimulates growth throughout the body and plays an important role at puberty.
20
Q

Testosterone has one effect? many effects? in men

A

many

21
Q

Testosterone in men:

1.Testosterone facilitates _____ and regulates ___ secretion.

A
  • spermatogenesis

- LH

22
Q

Testosterone in men:

2. Testosterone influences _____ via the central nervous system, especially the ______?

A
  • sexual behaviour

- medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus

23
Q

Testosterone in men:
3. Testosterone does not regulate sexual behaviour one a _____to____ or _____to______ basis. The effects are actually what?

A
  • minute to minute
  • hour to hour
  • long term
24
Q

Testosterone in men:

4. Castration does what to sexual interest?

A
  • reduces or eliminates male sexual interest..though the decline varies among individuals
25
Q

Testosterone in men:

5. Testosterone has ____ effects. Meaning what?

A
  • anabolic

- promotes tissue growth

26
Q

Estradiol is secreted where in men? It has wide range effects/limited effects/barely any effects, on mens bodes?

A
  • testes

- wide ranging effects in men’s bodies

27
Q

What are the three effects Estradiol has on men’s bodies?

A
  1. facilitates the maturation and concentration of the sperm in the epididymis
  2. terminates the growth of limb bones in puberty
  3. maintains the normal density of bone
28
Q

Menstruation has important ___,___ and __ aspects.

A

psychological, cultural and practical

29
Q

What kind of attitudes towards menstruation are very common around the world?

A
  • negative attitudes and beliefs
30
Q

The menstrual cycle:

-what are the three phases?(their days as well)

A
  • menstrual (days 1-5) , follicular(days 6-14) and luteal (days 15 to 28 )
31
Q

The menstrual cycle:

- the cycle is variable in length but what is the average length range?

A
  • 24 to 32 days
32
Q

The menstrual cycle:

- menstrual phase is triggered by what?

A
  • drop in progesterone level
33
Q

The menstrual cycle:
- the follicular phase is marked by what?
L> at the end of this phase what reaches its peak levels
L>what marks the end of this stage and the beginning of another?

A
  • maturation of ovarian follicles
  • estradiol
  • ovulation
34
Q

The menstrual cycle:
- during the luteal phase what is prepared for pregnancy?
L> a second lesser peak of what occurs in this phase?
L> what peaks in the latter half of this phase?

A
  • uterus
  • estradiol
  • progesterone levels
35
Q

The menstrual cycle influences what?

A
  • sexuality
36
Q

A women’s sexuality is or is not strictly regulated by hormonal fluctuations?

A
  • not
37
Q

Women are more interested in sex and more sexually active during what time periods?

A
  • 6 days before and on the day of ovulation (end of follicular phase and beginning of the luteal)
38
Q

Libido may be liked to high ____ levels before ovulation.

A
  • androgen
39
Q

Sherwin an Gelfand (1987)
L> women with ovaries and uterus removed were given ???
*explain the study

A

given:
1. no hormon replacement therapy
2. monthly injections of depot estradiol
3. monthly injections of depot estradiol and androgen.
* Groups one and two showed no change in sexual desire or fantasy or arousal
- group three showed greatly increased desire, fantasy and arousal paralleled rising and allying of hormone levels.

40
Q

What does PMS stand for?

What does PMDD stand for?

A
  • Premenstrual Syndrome

- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

41
Q

How does progesterone influence mood?

A
  • reduces anxiety
42
Q

A drop in progesterone before menstruation can increase what?

A
  • anxiety and irritability
43
Q

PMS is highly consistent or variable among women?

A
  • variable
  • no PMS (~50%)
  • mild to moderate PMS (~30-50%)
  • severe (<15%)
44
Q

How is severe PMS treated?

A
  • drugs that raise serotonin levels

fluoxetine or Prozac

45
Q

Do women with PMS experience significant changes in physical or intellectual performance?This was demonstrated by what research example?

A
  • NO SIGNIFICANT

- Cognitive Functioning in Premenstrual Syndrome by Morgan et al. (1996) Obstetrics and Gynaecology

46
Q

Cognitive Functioning in Premenstrual Syndrome by Morgan et al. (1996) Obstetrics and Gynaecology

  • Participants were?
  • at lease __% increase in symptoms from follicular to luteal phase lasting at least 7 days with resolution shortly after the onset of menstruation
  • women were asked to do what for two months?
A
  • 30 women…around the age of 30 plus or minus 6.5 years…with diagnosed PMS or PMDD
    L> 31 ge matched controls as well
  • 30%
  • 2 moth diary rating symptoms on a 6-point scale
47
Q

Cognitive Functioning in Premenstrual Syndrome by Morgan et al. (1996) Obstetrics and Gynaecology
- what measures were used?

A
- Depression: Beck Depression Inventory 
L> no D 0-9
L> mild/mod D 10-29
L> severe D 30-63 
- Cognitive: A variety of 12 standard tests 
L>block design task
L>digit symbol task 
L>digit span task
48
Q

Cognitive Functioning in Premenstrual Syndrome by Morgan et al. (1996) Obstetrics and Gynaecology
- results of the study?

A
  • no between group differences in any cog tasks
  • Beck Scores for D :
    L> Follicular: PMS (6.2), Control (2.5)
    L> Luteal: PMS (13.3), Control (3.5)
  • conclusion: Complaints of cog dysfunction are likely to be mediated by altered luteal phase perception of performance rather than an actual cog deficit.
49
Q

Explain the feminized male rats experiment!

A
  • three groups
    1. normal male injected with estradiol and progesterone at maturity and is unaffected
    1. male is castrated at a young age….later injected with E and P..it then assumes female permissive sexual posture
    1. male is castrated at a young age…..and is later implanted with an ovary in a different area….it assumes female permissive sexual posture.
50
Q

Explain the masculinized female rats experiment!

A
  • three groups
    1. normal female is injected with testosterone when mature..it exhibits some male sexual behaviour
    1. female rat is injected with testosterone in infancy…then re-injected at maturity ( it begins to exhibit full male sexual behaviour at this point) **Activational Effect (it activates the masculinized brain)
    1. female at is injected with testosterone as an infant and later on at maturity injected with Estradiol and Progesterone and does not exhibit any female sexual behaviour still.
51
Q

Vagina Dentata?
L> popularized by who in the western world?
L> references to what?
L>actual thing?

A
  • Siggy Freud- occurrence of castration anxiety in some men and linked it
  • devouring vagina both with and without teeth found in folklore
  • yes. in rare cases teeth may be found in the vagina. Dermoid cyst in skin can harden and form tooth like structures in the ear or the vagina.
52
Q

Menstrual synchrony reality or myth?

  • what is synchrony?
  • McClintook (1971) ?
  • Stern and McClintook (1998)?
A
  • when women that live together get their periods at the same time
  • reported menstrual synchrony among college females living in residence halls
  • experiments suggested that pheromones may be the synchronizing factor
    L> donor women lengthened or shortened the cycle of recipient women by 1-2 days.
53
Q

Stern and McClintook (1998)?

- over five months of the study what occurs with menstrual onset?

A
  • difference gets less

- near the end they are basically at the same starting point

54
Q

Stern and McClintook (1998)?

- how has this research been criticized by Strassmann?

A
  • Strassmann (1997) studied an African tribe ( The Dogon) in which women live close together and no synchrony was found.
55
Q

Burke, Levenstein and Bernette (1978) study revealed what about PMS?

A
  • 1/2 women were given a questionnaire that said Menstrual Distress Questionnaire
    L> they reported more symptoms of PMS than those who answered the same questionnaire but without that table
    L> they had a Health Questionnaire.