What excuse did the Bolsheviks mention when seizing power from the PG?
When they seized power from the Provisional government in October 1917, they calimed they were doing so on behalf of the workers, peasant and soldiers of Russia.
Why did they condemn the Provisional Government?
For failing to reform Russia and take them out of war, which the bolsheviks were determined to do to show the people that they were capable of bringng these changes.
What was the Decree on Peace, November 1917?
The first decree passed by the All-Russian Congress of Soviets after the Bolsheviks had seized power.
What was the aim of the Decree on Peace?
It as called for all countries involved in the war to immediately begin peace negotiations and to create peace “without annextion and indemnities” (no country’s land to be seized by another or punish each other with huge fines).
Did the Decree on Peace increase support for the Bolsheviks?
What did the Bolsheviks hope that the decree on peace would do?
It might encourage German soldiers to begin their own Bolshevik style revolution and pread it across the country
Was the bolsheviks hope a success?
No, it did not happen
What was the Decree on Land, November 1917?
Distributing the land of ealthy landowners to the peasants.
How did the decree on land benefit the peasants?
Many peasants had this land already - but the decree gave this the force of law and indicated that the new Bolshevik government approved of the land seizures.
What did the Bolsheviks fail to do before the decree of land was passed?
Land distribution, which lost them a lot of peasant support
What further action did the Bolsheviks do?
They nationalised church land on December and at the same time, many Russian churches were shut or damaged.
What was the Decree on Workers rights?
It was done to improve the lives of workers in towns or cities.
What was the Decree on Work?
eight hour working day, 48 hour week: to give workers less demanding hours
What was the decree on unemployment?
Brought unemployment insurance - to support workers who are injured, ill or unemployed
What was the decree on workers control?
Allowed workers committees to run their own factories
What was the Decree on nationalities, December 1917?
Promised all the different peoples of the old tsarist Russian Empire that they would have their own government. Russian rule/ language would not be forced on them
Why was the decree on nationalities introduced and what benefit did it give?
To stop the different nations breaking away and becomming inedependant. It seemed as though it would give the groups more right but it only made them more tightly controllled under bolshevik rule
What was the soviets response to the decrees?
The Bolsheviks gained increased support from across the sovet system. It seemed that a new kind of Russia was emerging- one in which those who were unhappy with “old Russia” would finally find things changing in ways that benefitted them.
Why were the Bolsheviks reluctant to organise elections?
They did not intend to set up a parliamentary democracy and their real intention was to work through the soviets that they controlled.
Why did lenin agree to put up election?
There were great expectations that a general election should be held
How many people voted?
41.7 million people
What were the reults like to the Bolsheviks?
It was a dissapointment as they only won 168 seats but the Socialist Revolutionaries gained 370.
What were the consequences of the elections?
Some SRs (the lefs SRs) actually supported the Bolsheviks but nevertheless, the Bolsheviks list majority.
What happened to the remaining votes?
They were split between other parties such as Mansheviks and the Kadets. Those elected were expected to sit in a new parliamentary body called the Constituent Assembly.
When the Constituent Assembly first meet?
In January 1918
Why and how was the assembly broken?
The Bosheviks had no intention of giving up the power by letting the assembly go on so it was broken up by the Bolsheviks and the Red Guards fom the Baltic Fleet at Kronstadt.
What did lenins governments (sovarkom) include?
It included the left Soviet Revolutionaries (SR) and Bolsheviks.
When did the alliance break down?
The alliance lasted until March 1917 and broke down when left SRs refused to acept the Bolshevik decision to sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany, in order to get Russia out of war
What happened after Tsar Nicholas II was abdicated?
He and his family were cosely guarded and were moved of Petrograd to prevent any rescue attempts
Where were the Tsar and his family taken to?
Finally, they were taken to the Zapetiv House in Yekaterinburg in the Ural mountains.
How was the Tsar betrayed by his alliances?
He hoped he and his family would be allowed to leave Russia but Neither France or Britain allowed him. France saw him as an embarassment and as someone who “ruled as an autocrat”
What did the Bolsheviks do with the Tsar at first?
After the Bolsheviks overthrew the PG, they became in complete control of the Tsar and the local Ural soviets became in charge in guarding them.
what did the Bolsheviks fear when Civil War broke out 1918?
They feared that one of the anti-Bolshevik armies advancing through Ural area might free the Tsar
What did the Bolsheviks finally decide to do to the Tsar?
They murdered the Tsar and his family on the orders of Lenins government in Moscow.
Who was given the job of negotiating the end of fighting in the war?
To Trotsky as Commissor for war. The Bolsheviks promised to end Russia’s involvement with the war.
What did Trotsky hope to do?
- avoid continuing to fight the war - avoid surrendering as Germans were making huge demands for Russia.
What troubles did Trotsky face?
Germans kept advancing, and Petrograd seemed in danger of being captured. The capital was moved to Moscow.
What were Lenins colleagues opinion of the war?
The so called “left Communists” wanted to continue the war but Lenin persuaded his colleagues to agree to German terms.
What were the consequences of agreeing to the German terms?
Left SRs walked out in protest so it only left the Bolsheviks.
When was Brest- Litovsk signed?
On March 1918.
What ere the main outcomes of the treaty?
Russia lost all its western lands, Russia lost 62 million people/26 percent of its population, Russia lost 27percent of farmland/26percent of railways/74percent iron and coal and Rusia had to pay Germany 300 million gold roubles.
What were the main reasons for Brest-Litovsk?
They needed a breathing space - a chance to get their rule organised without being overwhelmed by the military and economic problems caused by continuing to fight the war.
What were the reactions to the treaty in Russia?
The left SRs assassinated German ambasador in hope of starting war again.
What were the positive effects of the treaty?
- It saved the Bolshevik government- they couldn’t continue with the war - soldiers were relieved that the fighting seemed to be over.
What were the negative effects of the treaty?
- It was a crushing blow to Russia and encouraged the Bolsheviks’ enemies to try and overthrow their government and restore Russian greatness