What was ‘State Capitalism’?
The communists nationalised the biggest industries - along with banks and railways - and gave them targets for what they should be achieving. Middle class managers and technicians were allowed to stay on in their old jobs to make sure the newly nationalised businesses were run efficiently.
Why was ‘War Communism’ introduced?
When the economy continued to fall apart, a new and tougher approach was adopted - this would later be described as ‘War Communism’.
What was the main reason for the implementation of ‘War Communism’?
Russia was drifiting into Civil War; and if the communists did not get control of the industry and the food supply, they would lose. Workers had to carry on producing goods - and the Red Army needed food.
How did the government end all links to capitalism?
They abolished money, the free market and getting rid of social classes - though the distinction between workers and peasants would remain.
How did the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk affect grain production?
Russia lost important grain-producing areas in Ukraine because of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Other agricultural areas were controlled by White armies. Less and less food was reaching the cities. Consequently, the population in the cities collapsed as thousands went to live with their relatives in the countryside, where it was easier to get hold of food.
What was labour conscription and its consequences?
People were forced to work as directed by the government. There was strict discipline for workers and this meant that workers’ rights were reduced. Strikes became illegal and strikers could be shot. Trade unions were taken over by the Communist Party.
What effect did free public transport have on workers?
They could get to work more easily.
What were the consequences of food rationing?
How much people recieved depended on what job they did. People in jobs that were central to winning the war had the best rations.
What was the result of housing redistribution?
Living space became more equal, and the government had more control over it. Communist Party officials decided who would get a home. These were often spaces in a barracks or a shared flat.
Why were the Cheka sent to the countryside to requistion?
After the governenment announced that a fixed price would be paid for grain to keep costs down, this angered the peasants who didnt want to sell at the lower price, so they hung onto their grain and waited for the price to improve. The Cheka, and groups of workers, were sent to the countryside to requisition grain from the peasants. Peasants thought to be hoarding grain were shot.
What were the effects of industries becoming nationalised?
There was an increase of government control and workers’ factory committees were abolished. Bourgeois specialists’ were employed as managers. They did not have to be communists as long as they followed governement order.
What substititued money after its abolishment?
The government paid people in kind however money continued to be used in areas that the communist did not fully control. In places like these, inflation ran out of control and prices leapt up.
Why had ‘War Communism’ failed?
By 1921, Russia was facing ecomomic collapse: Peasants were destroying their crops, rather than see them being seized by the communists. There were widespread shortages of food and consumer goods and in many country areas there was famine.
What political crisis did ‘War Communism’ lead to?
In Tambov Province there was a huge peasant uprising from 1920-1921.
Why were the Communist Party shocked by the Kronstadt Mutiny?
The Kronstadt naval base had guarded Petrograd and its sailors fought in the February Revolution, the July Days and the October Revolution so it was a shock, therefore, to senior Bolsheviks when the Kronstadt sailors rebelled against the soviet government.
What were factory workers particularly unhappy about?
They felt the Communist Party did not represent them or take into consideration the falling living standard so these factory workers organised protests and strikes. In response the Communist Party arrested protestors but also increased food rations, to try to stop further protests.
What was the purpose of the New Economic Policy?
The New Economic Policy worked to reverse the socialist features War Communism introduced and resolve the economic disasters it brought.
What were the main reasons for the implementation of NEP?
1) the disastrous economic consequences of War Communism. 2) the political opposition caused by War Communism.
How did the NEP reverse things financially?
The free market was reintroduced so now peasants could sell their produce and decide what price to sell at it. Money was also reintroduced so workers were paid wages again. And the state stopped requisitoning grain and other crops from the peasants so peasants paid tax on what they sold.
What were the economic effects of NEP?
Agricultural production increased as peasants began to produce more. Industrial growth increased but more slowly.
What was ‘scissors crisis’?
It was when the shortage of industrial products kept them expensive while food became cheaper. It meant peasants stopped producing so much food, leading to fears of famine. The government cut prices for industrial products.
Who reacted positively to NEP?
It was popular with peasants and traders as they preferred the freedom to sell what they wanted rather than see the state requisition almost everything they produced.
Who reacted negatively to NEP?
Many Communist Party members did not like NEP as it was a backwards step that seemed to bring capitalism back to the USSR. It also gave the peasants what they wanted at the expense of the workers.
What impact did Bolshevik policies have on women?
1917: Women declared equal to men. ‘Post-card divorces’ made divorce easier. Non-religious marriage introduced. 1919: Zhenotdel, a women’s organisation was set up to increase freedom, equality and influence of women. 1920: Abortion made legal. Women’s literacy increased with Civil War literacy campaigns.
How did the Communist Party use propaganda to their advantage?
The Agritrop was the Agitation and Propaganda Section of the Central Committee Secretariat of the Communist Party: the party’s propaganda wing. It used art, literature, film and music to promote communist ideas and portray the USSR’s communist future.
How did literacy rates increase?
There was a major literacy drive in the Red Army and peasants were encouraged to learn to read and write. By 1926, about 58% of the population was literate, a big increase from before the revolution.