2.1 cell structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.1 cell structure Deck (18)
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1

14 organelles

plasma membrane
cilia
centriole
chloroplast
cell wall
rough endoplasmic reticulum
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
flagellum
golgi apparatus
mitochondria
lysosome
ribosome
vesicles
nucleus

2

plasma membrane

surface of animal cell , inside cell wall in plant cells.
made of lipids and proteins
-regulate movement, in and out of the cell
- receptors molecules

3

cell wall

rigid structure, surrounds plant cells
mainly made of cellulose
- supports plant cells

4

lysosome

round organelle with membrane
-contains digestive enzymes, digest invading cells or breaks down components of the cell.

5

riobosome

attached to rer or floats free
made up of proteins and RNA
no membrane
- where proteins are made

6

nucleus

nuclear envelope (double membrane)
pores
nucleolus
contains chromatin ( made from DNA and proteins)
- controls cell activities
-pores allow substances (RNA)
- nucleolus makes riobosomes
- DNA contains instructions to make proteins

7

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

system of membranes enclosing fluid-filled space
surface covered with ribosomes
-folds and porcesses proteins

8

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

system of membranes enclosing fluid-filled spaces
no ribosomes
-synthesises and processes lipids

9

golgi appratus

fluid-filled membrane-bound flattened sacs
-process and packages proteins and lipids
-makes lysosomes

10

vesicles

fluid-filled sacs with a membrane
made in golgi apparatus endoplasmic reticulum, cell surface
-transport substances

11

miochondrion

double membrane
inner membrane folded in cristae
inside contains matrix
-site of aerobic respiration, produces ATP
- requires energy

12

centriole

hollow cylinders made of microtubules
animal cells and some plant cells
-involved in separation of chromosomes during cell division

13

chloroplast

flattened structure in plant cells
Double membrane
inside contains thylakoid membrane stacked up into structures called grana linked together by bits of thylakoids, lamellae
- site of photosynthesis

14

cilia

hair-like structures
found in surface membrane of some animal cells
9 pairs of microtubules and 2 at the middle, 9+2 formation
-microtubules allow cilia to move and to move substances along cell surface

15

flagellum

stick out of cell
plasma membrane
9 pairs of microtubules and 2 in the middle, 9+2 formation
- microtubules contract, flagellum moves (sperm cell)

16

organelles working together proteins production

made at ribosome
-if free stay in cytoplasm
-in RER excreted o attached to cell membranes
-RER folded and processed, vesicle
-golgi apparatus further processed vesicle
eg. glycoproteins -->cell surface and excreted

17

organelles working together cytoskeletron

in cytoplasm
-network of proteins threads
-in eukaryotic arranged in microtubules and microfilaments
1. support organelles in position
2.strengthen cell, mantain shape
3.movement of material (contraction of microtubules separates chromosomes)
4. cause movement of cilia and flagella

18

prokaryotic cell differences

1. smaller 2 compared to 10-100
2. circular DNA not linear
3. wall made of polysaccharide but not chitin (fungi) cellulose (plants), animal no cell wall
4. no nucleus
5. few organelles, no membrane-bound
6. flagella made of protein flagellin arranged in a helix, in eukaryotic made of microtubule proteins and arranged in 9+2 formation
7. small ribosomes