Flashcards in 22- Soft Tissue Trauma Deck (54)
What are ligaments?
elastic structures that stabilize the joints
What is a sprain?
occurs when the a tensile (stretching) force elongates a ligament beyond its elastic limit, which will tear wither in its midsubstance or at the attachment of bone
What is an avusion Fx?
when a ligament pulls a sliver of bone off
What is a 1st degree sprain?
denotes only slight stretching of the ligament and microscopic damage limited to the collagen fibrils associated with no discernible instability to the joint
What is a 2nd degree sprain?
represents a partial tearing of the ligament gross continuity of the ligament is preserved there is abnormal laxity (looseness) of the joint is produced when joint is stressed
What is a 3rd degree sprain/?
represents a complete tear injury may paradoxically cause less discomfort than a second-degree sprain because there is no remaining intact ligament to be stretched and it is the stretch that produced pain leads to gross instability
Why might 3rd degree sprains initially appear stable?
because of muscle spasm temporally holding the joint in place
What is a dislocation?
when instability of the joint leads to the articular surfaces completely lose contact with each other (seen with complete tears)
What is a subluxation?
joint surfaces begin to dissociate but do not completely lose contact with each other
What are the 4 types of injuries sustrained for sprains?
injury to the ligament, residual instability of the joint, disruption of the articular surface, injury to surrounding arteries and nerves
What is a Hills-Sachs lesion?
when the humeral head is forced forward out of the glenoid socket, its posterior surface can collide with the front of the glenoid and cause an impaction injury
Why can osteonecrosis happen after hip dislocations?
by trauma to the vascular bundle that are bound to the femur
What does RICE stand for?
What are the 3 capsular ligaments that stabilize the shoulder?
superior, middle, inferior glenohumeral ligaments
What is the stabilizer of the anterior transduction for the shoulder?
inferior glenohumeral lig
What is the glenoid labrum?
a fibrous structure attached to the circumference of the glenoid socket deepens the saucer like glenoid socket to lend additional stability
Which muscles provide dynamic stability to shoulder?
Rotor cuff, biceps, and scapular rotator muscles
What happens in atraumatic dislocations?
characterized by subluxations and dislocations of the joint in the absence of specific trauma, specifically from joint laxity and have no identifiable cause
What happens in a traumatic dislocation?
usually from a fall, 98% are anterior
What are acquired dislocations?
shoulder dislocations from repeat minor injuries (chronic knuckle children syndrome)
What are the characteristics of Marfans?
characterized by excessive height, long fingers, and toes, laxity of connective tissue, including connective tissue in the heart valves, aorta, and eyes (they have atraumatic instability)
When do you see Bankart lesions?
seen in most cases of an anterior dislocation where the anterior labrum and capsule are torn away from the glenoid
What are more likely to happen if you dislocate your shoulder as a kid?
More dislocations (viscous cycle)
Which views do you need on a X-ray for shoulder dislocations?
AP, transcapular, and lateral (Y view)
What is the Tx for a first time shoulder dislocation?
Closed reduction followed by a period of immobilization and then a program of rehab
What is the fxn of the ACL?
stabilizes the knee against anterior subluxation of the tibia
Which muscles supplement the ACL's actions?
hamstrings and gastrocnemius
What is the mechanism of rupture for an ACL?
is when the tibia is forced forward which typically occurs when an individual is attempting to change directions at a high rate of speed
What are traumatic dislocations fo the hip?
are characterized by sudden and violent displacement of the femoral head from the acetabulum