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Flashcards in Child Abuse Deck (29)
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What % of Fx's in children are associated with child abuse?

25% of fractures in children ages 1 year and below, and 10-15% in children younger than 3 years are from child abuse


True or False: there is a mandatory reporting law for child abuse in all 50 states.



How many child abuse cases are reported every year?

3.5 million, 33% were substantiated, giving the incidence at 15 per 1000 children.


what percent of fractures secondary to child abuse occur in children under 1 year of age?

50% of fractures secondary to child abuse occur in children younger than 1


What are the fracture findings suggestive of child abuse?

Multiple fractures in various stages of healing, posterior rib fractures, bilateral acute long bone fractures, complex skull fractures, and long bone fractures in nonwalking children are suggestive of abuse


What is the skeletal survey? When is it used?

screening radiographs of the entire skeleton, is indicated in all children younger than 2 years with any evidence of physical abuse, all children younger than 1 year with evidence of medical neglect, and possibly all children younger than 5 years with a suspicious acute fracture


What is septic arthritis?

infections that are caused by spread of bacteria in blood


What is the incidence of pediatric osteomyelitis?

1 in 250, relatively common


Why does the structure of bone in kids predispose them to hematogenous osteomyelitis?

The structure of the blood vessels of the metaphyseal regions of the long bones predisposes them to infection. Because the vascular loops have sharp angles of curvature and small diameters, the bacteria become clogged and bogged down and starts infection


How does hematogenous osteomyelitis spread to the bone?

Physis is a barrier to pus, and rarely does infection invade the epiphysis, but it can go down the medullary canal, out through the outer cortex of the bone, and into the subperiosteal space


How does hematogenous osteomyelitis spread to the joints?

In joints like the hip and shoulder, the metaphysis is intra-articular, and so the subperiosteal infections here are essentialy already in the joint.


When do radiolucent changes begin during osteomyelitis?

Radiolucent patches in bone and periosteal reactions are visible about 2 weeks after osteomyelitis starts.


What is sequestrum?

necrotic infected bone that is walled off by fibrotic tissue


Which bacteria is common for osteomyelitis in all age groups?

Staph aureus


Which bacteria is common for osteomyelitis in kids < 4 years old?

Streptococcus species


Which bacteria is common for osteomyelitis in neonates?

enteric organisms (those native to GI tract)


Which bacterial infection is a major cause of osteomyelitis in sickle cell patients?



What is the clinical presentation for osteomyelitis in neonates?

Osteomyelitis in neonates may only manifest as generalized irritability or failure to thrive, so it is easy to miss


Which tests do you need for suspected osteomyelitis in kids?

Blood cell count, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate), CRP (c-reactive protein) level, blood cultures, radiographs, and possibly aspiration of the bone.


What is the difference between ESR and CRP in monitoring osteomyelitis?

ESR and CRP levels are high, but CRP level rises and falls more rapidly in response to treatment, so it is used to see if a treatment is good.


Which method of radiographs can you use to measure osteomyelitis in the initial period?

Three phase technetium 99m bone scanning


Which method of radiographs can you use to measure osteomyelitis by localizing a subperiosteal abscess?



Which method of radiographs can you use to measure osteomyelitis by visualizing the extend of a bony infection?



What is the recommended treatment for acute homogenously spread osteomyelitis?

6 weeks of treatment with antibiotics, administered intravenously.


What are the effects of pus in a joint?

Presence of pus in the joint causes damage to the hyaline cartilage on the joint surface. Cartilage changes occur between 8 and 12 hours after infection. Hyaline doesn’t regenerate well so it needs immediate surgical drainage


What are the physical findings in children with acute septic arthritis?

They are sicker than those with osteomyelitis and more likely to have a fever and present with lethargy and are irritable. They can also have recent illness, like ear or throat infection, or have a recent injury. Involved joint is warm, tender, and swollen, the hallmark of septic arthritis is resistance to both active and passive motion. Move the patient’s joint to the position that creates the most volume in that joint, most joints will be in flexion for the most volume


Which tests do you need to Dx septic arthritis?

Complete blood count, ESR, CRP, radiographs, and blood cultures, aspiration of the joint is imperative, because analysis of the synovial joint is key


What is toxic synovitis?

acute non-bacterial joint inflammation, can appear clinically similar to bacterial sepsis, but can be differentiated on the basis of a normal ESR or CRP level, lack of joint effusion, and/or low white blood cell count in the joint fluid


How do you manage toxic synovitis?

Management includes drainage and surgical decompression of the affected joint. Antibiotics can be administered for septic arthritis situations and can be continued for 1-6 weeks