Vasculitic Syndromes Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal System II > Vasculitic Syndromes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vasculitic Syndromes Deck (46):
1

Giant cell arteritis- epidemiologies

females of north european descent, >50

2

Giant cell arteritis- Sx

it's in the temporal artery so headaches, jaw pain, blurry/double vision

3

Giant cell arteritis- Dx

bilateral temporal artery biopsy, increase in ESR, multinucleated giant cells

4

Giant cell arteritis- Tx

prednisone

5

Takayasu arteritis- what is it

also known as aortic arch syndrome or pulseless disease. Vasculitis causes an inflammation which damages the aorta and the its main branches leading to arterial stenosis or aneurysms.

6

Takayasu arteritis- patient population

females between 15 and 40 years old in Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe

7

Takayasu arteritis- Sx

abscence of peripheral pulses, ischemia to head, fever, vascular bruits

8

Takayasu arteritis- Dx

increase in ESR and aortic arch thickening

9

Takayasu arteritis- Tx

Corticosteroids

10

What is pylyarteritis nodosa (PAN)?

vasculitis of medium-sized vessels

11

Is PAN involved with glomerulonephritis?

No

12

What infection is PAN assocated with?

Hep B and C

13

PAN- Dx

increase in BUN and Hep B antigen

14

What is Microscopic polyangitis (MPA)?

vasculitis of small-sized vessels

15

Is MPA involved with glomerulonephritis?

Yes (+lung involvement)

16

MPA- Dx

Increase in P-ANCA

17

What are the diseases associated with secondary polyarteritis?

hepatitis C infection, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome, mixed cryoglobulinemia, hairy cell leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and other hematologic malignancies

18

What is the confirmatory test used to demonstrate vasculitis?

Angiography or biopsy of involved tissue showing vasculitis

19

What are the agents used in the treatment of vasculitis?

Early diagnosis and corticosteroid therapy. Cytotoxic or antimetabolite drugs such as cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and azathioprine are used in combination with corticosteroids

20

Churg Strauss vasculitis- why it's different than PAN

The presence of granulomas as well as the abundance of eosinophils distinguishes this disease from PAN

21

Churg Strauss vasculitis- population

males with a median age of 38

22

Churg Strauss vasculitis- Sx

1) a history of, or current symptoms of, asthma, 2) peripheral eosinophilia (>1.5 x 10^9 eosinophils/L), 3) systemic vasculitis of at least 2 extra-pulmonary organs.

23

Churg Strauss vasculitis- Dx

Granulomatous, necrotizing vasculitis w/ eosinophilia. Elevated IgE & ↑ P-ANCA

24

Churg Strauss vasculitis- Tx

Corticosteriod w/ or w/o cytotoxic agents

25

Buerger- population

young smokers

26

Buerger disease- Sx

ischemic injury to fingers and toes, can lead to amputation

27

Buerger disease- Tx

STOP SMOKING YOU IDIOT

28

Primary Angitis of CNS- cause

a form of vasculitis where the body attacks the arteries of the brain and spinal cord. It has a chronic fluctuating and progressive course

29

Primary Angitis of CNS- Sx

headache, maybe some mild CNS, rarely coma or stroke

30

Primary Angitis of CNS- Dx

Cerebral angiography and biopsy of CNS tissues, including the leptomeninges

31

Primary Angitis of CNS- Tx

Short, benign course: use corticosteroids and calcium-channel blockers to prevent vasospasm

32

Wegener Granulomatosis- 3 signs

upper and lower respiratory tract necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and focal segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis

33

Wegener Granulomatosis- population

40-50 year olds. Slight male predominance.

34

Wegener Granulomatosis- Dx

positive cytoplasmic (c-) ANCA test

35

Wegener Granulomatosis- Tx

Corticosteroids

36

What are the 4 diseases with a + p-ANCA test?

Idiopathic crescentic glomerulonephritis
Microscopic polyarteritis nodosa
Churg-Strauss syndrome
Wegener granulomatosis

37

What is the most common cause of isolated cutaneous vasculitis?

drugs

38

What are clinical manifestations of isolated cutaneous vasculitis?

urticaria, palpable purpura, livedo reticularis, or skin ulceration.

39

Schonlein-Henoch vasculitis- presentation

arthritis, gastrointestinal pain, kidney inflammation, and purpura in kids

40

Schonlein-Henoch vasculitis- Dx

IgA deposition in vessel walls and normal complement levels.

41

Type I Cryoglobulins- 3 cancers

Multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia are all cancers of this type

42

Type I Cryoglobulins- Sx

headaches, visual disturbances, nosebleeds, Raynaud phenomenon, and ischemic ulceration

43

Type I Cryoglobulins- Lab findings

increased IgM

44

Type II cryoglobulinemia- 3 associated diseases

chronic infections (most commonly hepatitis C), autoimmune disorders, and sometimes lymphoma

45

Type II cryoglobulinemia- presentation

nonsystemic small vessel vasculitis with palpable purpura, urticaria, and cutaneous ulceration

46

Type II cryoglobulinemia- lab findings

↑erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ↑immunoglobulin levels, positive rheumatoid factor