22. Systemic Pathology Flashcards Preview

.DENTAL BOARD EXAM REVIEWER > 22. Systemic Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 22. Systemic Pathology Deck (234):
1

Accumulation of blood in pericardial space

Cardiac tamponade

2

“Beck’s triad” assoc with Cardiac tamponade

Distended neck veins
Distant muffled heart sounds
Decrease arterial BP

3

3 diseases assoc with RHD/RF

Scarlet fever
Impetigo
Strep throat

4

Disease caused by post streptococcal hypersensitivity

RHD

5

Strawberry tongue

Scarlet fever

6

Diff dx of scarlet fever (with strawberry tongue also)

Kawasaki disease

7

2 Histologic features of RHF

Aschoff bodies
Anitschkow giant cells

8

Pathognomonic granulomatous inflammed tissue of myocardium

Aschkoff bodies

9

“Caterpillar like” 🐛 Giant macrophages

Anitschkow giant cells

10

5 features of RF/RHD

Polyarthritis
Pancarditis
Valvular damage (mitral valve)
Chorea
Erythema marginatum

11

BQ: what Pericarditis is associated with RHD?

Fibrinoid pericarditis

12

Other term for fibrinoid pericarditis

“Bread and butter” pericarditis

13

BQ: Clinica feature of erythema multiforme

Target skin lesion/bull’s eye

14

Bacteria colonization of heart valves (mitral valve)

Endocarditis

15

Most common cause of Endocarditis (old textbook)

RHD

16

Accdg to WHO: High risk of Endocarditis in:

Prosthetic heart valve
Recent cardiac surgery
History of endocarditis

17

Treatment for pxs with high risk of having Endocarditis before Extraction or invasive procedures

Prophylactic antibiotic:
1. Amoxicillin 2,000mg/2g
- 30mins to 60mins prior to invasive procedure

2. Clindamycin 600mg
- if allergic to amox

18

Side effect of clindamycin

Pseudomembranous colitis

19

Causative agent/bacteria of pseudomembranous colitis

Clostridium difficile

20

Tx for pseudomembranous colitis

Metronidazole
Vancomycin

21

Side effect of vancomycin

Red man syndrome

22

Most common type of endocarditis

Subacute endocarditis

23

Bacteria assoc with “endocarditis”

Streptococcus viridans

24

Infection of lungs esp the alveoli

Pneumonia

25

2 types of pneumonia

Bacterial and viral pneumonia

26

Causative agent of bacterial pneumonia

Strep pneumoniae

27

Viral pneumonia

Influenza virus (orthomyxovirus)
RSV (paramyxovirus)

28

“Collapsed” alveoli of lungs (decrease in size/deflated) due to surfactant deficiency

Atelectasis
(“Ectasis” - collapse)

29

COPD (3)

Bronchiectasis
Emphysema
Chronic bronchitis

30

BQ: disease assoc with “Barrel chest appearance”

COPD* (boards)
- Emphysema

31

Collapsed bronchi (dilatation of respiratory tract) usually due to CYSTIC FIBROSIS!!(inc mucus prod:loss of cilia: cant breathe)

Bronchiectasis

32

“Pink puffer”

emPhysema

33

“Blue Bloaters”

Chronic Bronchitis

34

“Trapped air”

Emphysema

35

Most common chronic disease of the lungs

Emphysema

36

Increase in size of the air spaces (nawawalan ng elasticity ung alveoli)

Emphysema

37

“Barrel chest appearance”

Emphysema
(Choices sa boards: COPD!)

38

Inflammation of bronchi due to Inhalation of pollutants (smoking and pneumoconiosis)

Chronic bronchitis

39

Inhalation of different pollutants

Pneumoconiosis

40

“Stone mason’s disease”

Silicosis

41

Most common and most serious
Inhalation of SILICA
Assoc with TB!

Silicosis

42

Inhalation of ASBESTOS
Assoc with bronchogenic carcinoma

Asbestosis

43

“Wool sorter’s disease”

Anthrax

44

“Black lung or Coal worker’s disease”

Anthracosis

45

Inhalation of csrbon or coal dust

Anthracosis

46

Inhalation of beryllium

Berrylliosis

47

BQ: Consequences of CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

Cor pulmonale
Bronchogenic carcinoma

48

Enlargement of right ventricles

Cor pulmonale

49

Bronchial epithelium to squamous change
Assoc with asbestosis

Bronchogenic carcinoma

50

BQ: Most common death causing cancer in MALE(or female 2018)

Lung cancer

51

Most common death causing cancer in women (old statistics)

Breast cancer

52

Most common cancer in male

Prostate cancer

53

Most common cancer in females

Breast cancer

54

Disease due to excessive acid secretion

Peptic ulcers

55

Most commonly involved bacteria in peptic ulcers

Helicobacter pylori

56

Most common site of peptic ulcer

Duodenum (c shaped/iron)

57

Skin cancer of the stomach
- risk factors: smoked and raw food

Gastric carcinoma

58

Most common blood type assoc with gastric carcinoma

Blood type A

59

Carcinogen found in grilled food:well done

Benzo-a-pyrenes

60

Other term for gerd

Heartburn

61

Gastric contents moving up to the Lower esophagus

Gerd

62

Doc for gerd

Omeprazole (PPI)

63

Treatment for GERD (2)

Omeprazole
H2 blockers (ranitidine/cimetidine)

64

Metaplastic change assoc with GERD

Barret’s esophagus

65

Decrease function of heart; resulting to decrease blood flow to organs

Heart failure

66

Most common type of CHF

Left CHF

67

Causes of left CHF

Hypertension
Rheumatic fever
MI

68

Larger type of circulation: Systemic or pulmonary?

Systemic - larger

69

Vessels involved in Pulmonary circulation

2 only:
Pulmo artery and vein
(the rest sa systemic na)

70

What ventricle supplies the systemic circulation

Left ventricle

71

Ventricle that is involved in pulmonary circulation

Right ventricle

72

Fat + Calcium =

Plaque

73

Sudden attack of severe shortness of breath during the night

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

74

Shortness of breath while lying

Two-pillow orthopnea (positional dyspnea)

75

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Two-pillow orthopnea
Tachypnea
Pleural effusion
Pulmonary edema
- Are characteristic of what CHF?

Left CHF - Lungs affected

76

Body compensation to heart failure:

1. Increases heart function ➡️ Hypertrophy of Left ventricle ➡️ Congestion
2. Fluid retention = ⬆️BF = ⬆️BS

77

What happens if there’s congestion in the left ventricle:

1. Decrease blood systemic circulation
2. Back flow of blood in the lungs (kaya hirap sila huminga)
3. R-CHF

78

BQ: Pigment carried by Heart failure cells

Hemosiderin
(Dust cells: eat yung rbc sa lungs = end product: hemosiderin)

79

Most common cause of R-CHF

Left CHF

80

Nutmeg liver is s characteristic feature of what disease?

Nutmeg liver : R-CHF

81

Nutmeg liver
Portal hypertension leading to:
- Splenomegaly
- Ascites
- Peripheral edema ( in lower ext)
- Jugular venous distention
- Esophageal varices
: Are associated with what CHF?

Right CHF (is body is involved)

82

Fluid accumulation in peritoneal cavity

Ascites

83

BQ: Esophageal varices is seen in what disease?

Right CHF or “CHF”

84

Plaque or (fat-calcium complexes) formation in the coronary artery

Coronary heart disease

85

Volume of blood pumped by the heart for every minute

Cardiac output

86

Formula for Cardiac output

CO = Stroke vol x Heart rate

87

Volume of blood pumped by the heart

Stroke volume

88

Beats per minute

Heart rate

89

Average stroke volume

70ml

90

Average heart rate

70 bpm

91

Average Cardiac output

4900ml/min ➡️ 5L/min!!!!

92

Typical range of Cardiac output

4L-7L/min

93

3 stages of Coronary Heart Disease

👑 Atherosclerosis
👑 Angina pectoris
👑 Myocardial infarction

94

Thickening and hardening of LARGE arteries like coronary artery, aorta

Atherosclerosis

95

Thickening and hardening of the smallest artery or arterioles

Arteriosclerosis

96

Chest pain due to ischemia (dec blood supply) in the heart

Angina pectoris

97

BQ: Chest pain without physical exertion 🙅‍♀️

Unstable angina

98

BQ: Chest pain during physical exertion 💃

Stable angina

99

Intermittent chest pain at rest (di matanong sa boards)

Variant or Prinzmetal’s angina

100

BQ: DOC for angina pectoris or chest pain

Nitroglycerin (Glycerin trinitrate)
- Sublingual
- causes vasodilation = ⬆️ Blood supply

101

Inhalational drug that can also be used to tx angina pectoris

Amyl nitrate

102

“Heart attack”

Myocardial infarction

103

Necrosis of myocardium due to infarction (LOSS of blood supply) in the coronary artery

Myocardial infaction

104

Whole process that causes Myocardial infarction is called?

Thromboembolism (formation of thrombus to EMBOLUS)

105

BQ: Most common site of thrombosis or Clot formation?

Deep femoral vein

106

Formation of clot

Thrombosis

107

aka “clot”

Thrombus

108

Any floating mass that is capable of clogging capillary walls (ex blood clot)

Embolus

109

Lodging of an embolus (pag na trap sa small vessel)

Embolism

110

Process: thrombus to embolus

Thromboembolism

111

Myocardial infarction has features of having:
- Severe chest pain and numbness radiating to what side of the body?

Left side of body - Numbness/Severe chest pain

112

Virchow’s triad - Factors that contribute to thrombosis formation : (virCHEows)

1. Changes in vascular flow
- obstruction ng blood flow
- (pag nakaupo palagi)

2. Hypercoagulability
- Gene mutations or drugs (birth control pills)

3. Endothelial injury
- damage in the wall of bv (happens in any form of wound like during SURGERY = ⬆️ risk of having MI)

113

BQ: “Roger’s disease”

Ventricular septal defect

114

Most common type of Acyanotic

Ventricular septal defect

115

Most common type of Cyanotic type: “Bluish” 💙

Tetralogy of fallot

116

4 components of Tetralogy of fallot

“PROVe”
Pulmonary stenosis
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Overriding aorta
Ventricular septal defect

117

“Narrowing of valve” = ⬇️ blood to lungs

Pulmonary STENOSIS
(stenosis - narrowing)

118

Narrowing of the DESCENDING AORTA

Coarctation of the aorta

119

Blood pressure difference in Coarctation of the aorta:
Upper body =
Lower body =

Coarctation of the aorta:
Upper body = hypertension
Lower body = hypotension

120

BQ: Ductus arteriosus (fetus)

Ligamentum arteriosum

121

BQ: Ductus venosus (fetus)

Ligamentum venosum (adults)

122

BQ: Umbilical vein (fetus)

Ligamentum teres (joins with falciform ligament of liver)

123

BQ: Foramen ovale (fetus)
- loc: sphenoid and heart (bet R/L atrium)

Fossa ovalis of right atrium
(In adults: 1 foramen ovale = exit of V3)

124

BQ: Which has thicker MUSCULAR LAYER: Arteries or veins?

Arteries thicker!

125

BQ: Which of the ffg layers of is ABSENT in veins?

Serosa

126

BQ: Arteries carrying UNoxygenated blood

Pulmonary artery
Umbilical artery

127

BQ: Veins carrying OXYGENATED blood

Pulmonary vein
Ductus venosus
Umbilical vein

128

BQ: Blue baby syndrome is assoc with?

Congenital heart defects
Methemoglobinemia
Erythroblastosis fetalis

129

BQ: Small bv supplying Larger blood vessels

Vasa vasorum
(“Vessels of the vessels”)

130

BQ: Exchange system of arteries and veins

Capillaries

131

Smallest BV

Capillaries

132

Lining of capillaries

Simple squamous

133

Size or Thickness of lumen of Capillaries

1 RBC

134

BQ: Vessels with greatest cross sectional area?

Capillaries
(But slowest blood flow: ⬆️Cross sec area = ⬇️ Blood flow)

135

BQ: blood flow is fastest in what blood vessel?

Aorta
(Rule: ⬇️ Cross sectional area: ⬆️BF)

136

BQ: Peripheral resistance is greatest in?

Capillaries
(⬇️compliance of capillaries = ⬆️ peripheral resistance)

137

Pressure exerted by the blood towards the wall of the blood vessel or “resistance ng vessel against blood pressure”

Peripheral resistance

Example:
(Blood exerts pressure on aorta(flexible)= ⬆️compliance:magsstretch ung walls pero may limit)
RULE: ⬆️compliance = ⬇️ Peripheral resistance

138

Highest BP in the body

Aorta

139

Lowest BP in the body

Vena cava

140

BQ: What vessel is assoc with Sudden GREATEST DECREASE in BP? (Biglang bumagsak BP)

Arteriole

141

BQ: What kind of drug is 5-Fluorouracil?

Anti-metabolite

142

BQ: Which disease has a rx app of Sunburst or Sunray ☀️

Osteosarcoma

143

BQ: Hx app of FIBROSARCOMA

Herringbone pattern
(Nakikita din sa xray film: pag baligtad)

144

Malignancy of skeletal muscle

Rhabdomyosarcoma

145

Benign tumor of skeletal muscle

Rhabdomyoma

146

Malignancy of smooth muscle

Leiomyosarcoma

147

Benign counterpart of leiomyosarcoma (smooth muscle)

Leiomyoma

148

BQ: Which is SMALLER: Osteiod osteoma or Osteoblastoma?

Osteoid osteoma - <1cm
(osteoblastoma - >2cm)

149

Which is MORE PAINFUL (Constant/nocturnal) : Osteiod osteoma or Osteoblastoma?

Osteoid osteoma

150

BQ: Which is relieved by nsaids: Osteoid osteoma or Osteoblastoma?

Osteoblastoma - pain reliever

151

Hereditary accumulation of polyps in the rectum of large intestine
- (presence of POLYPS and SUPERNUMERARY TEETH)

Gardner’s syndrome

152

Other name for Gardner’s syndrome

Familial colorectal polyposis

153

BQ: Most common site of colorectal cancer?

Rectosigmoid junction

154

Gardner’s syndrome or Familial colorectal polyposis is assoc with what cancer

Colorectal cancer

155

BQ: What is the differential diagnosis of Gardner’s?

Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
- With polyps
- normal # of teeth
- w/ freckles(ephilides)

156

Other name for Sjogren’s syndrome

Sicca syndrome

157

Autoimmune disease that damages the salivary and lacrimal glands

Sjogren’s syndrome or Sicca syndrome

158

Sjogren’s syndrome TRIAD

Xerostomia
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Rheumatoid arthritis

159

Treatment for Sjogren’s syndrome

1. Immunosuppressants:
Cyclosporine
Corticosteroids

2. Cholinergic drugs - Pilocarpine (parasymp drug: inc fluids for dry mouth and eyes)

3. Antiinflammatory:
NSAIDs

160

BQ: Drugs assoc with GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA

Phenytoin
Cyclosporines
Nifedipine

161

BQ: Disease assoc with sjogren’s syndrome with ENLARGEMENT OF SALIVARY AND LACRIMAL GLANDS is called?

Mikulicz disease
“benign lymphoepithelial lymphomatosum”
( BLL - mukhang BELL)

162

BQ: most common tumor assoc with PAROTID GLAND

Pleomorphic adenoma

163

Most common BENIGN tumor of parotid gland

Pleomorphic adenoma

164

Most common MALIGNANT tumor of parotid gland

“Mucoepidermoid carcinoma”
(ssc of salivary gland)

165

BQ: other term for SCC

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

166

BQ: “Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum”

Warthin’s tumor (2nd benign)

167

BQ: 2nd most common skin cancer of the body

SCC

168

BQ: most common site of SCC

Posterolateral border of tongue

169

Second most common MALIGNANT in PAROTID gland

Acinic cell carcinoma

170

Autodigestion of pancreas due to early activation of pancreatic juices - (happens only when you have gallstones : Alcoholics)

Acute pancreatitis
(COD: Internal hemorrhage)

171

Lab findings in Acute pancreatitis

Increase serum amylase and lipase (secreted by pancreas)

172

Liver tissues are being replaced by SCAR FIBROUS TISSUE resulting to decrease blod flow in the liver

Cirrhosis

173

Cirrhosis due to alcohol
Presence of mallory bodies

Alcoholic cirrhosis
“Laennec’s cirrhosis”

174

Cirrhosis due to obstruction of bile ducts

Biliary cirrhosis

175

Cirrhosis due to chronic RIGHT CHF!!!!

Cardiac cirrhosis

176

Inflammation of gall bladder

Cholecystitis

177

Gall bladder or bile duct STONES

Cholelithiasis

178

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease

Crohn’s disease

179

Clinical appearance of Crohn’s disease

Cobblestone

180

BQ: glomerular inflammation due to POST STREP INFECTIONS

Glomerulonephritis

181

BQ: Inflammatory rupture of the glomerular capillaries
- presence of HEMATURIA!!!

Nephritic syndrome

182

BQ: Functional impairment of kidney
Inc excretion of substances WITHOUT NEPHRITIS
- WITHOUT HEMATURIA

Nephrotic syndrome

183

Inflammation of renal pelvis and kidney

Pyelonephritis

184

Failure of PCT to reabsord impt subs like glucose and amino acids

Faconi’s syndrome

185

BQ: overfunctioning of the prostate gland
(Inc serum acid phosphatase and Prostate specific antigen “PSA”)

Prostate cancer

186

Accumulation of fluid in interstitial tissues

Edema

187

Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity

Ascites

188

Accumulation of fluid in the Pleural cavity

Hydrothorax/ Pleural effusion

189

Accumulation of fluid in the Pericardial sac

Cardiac tamponade

190

Generalized edema

Anasarca

191

Accumulation of fluid in the LUNG SPACES

Pulmonary edema

192

Process of “Blood efflux” from the circulatory system

Hemorrhage

193

Small size hemorrhage (<3mm)

Petechiae

194

Moderate size hemorrhage (3-10mm)

Purpura

195

Large size hemorrhage (>10mm)

Ecchymoses

196

Tumor like hemorrhage

Hematoma

197

Lack of blood flow to the tissues

Shock

198

Shock caused by hemorrhage

Hypovolemic shock or Hemorrhagic shock

199

Shock due to Decrease cardiac function (heart attack or cardiac tamponade)

Cardiogenic shock

200

Shock due to bacterial infection or SEPSIS and SEPTICEMIA

Septic shock

201

Shock due to excessive allergic reaction

Anaphylactic shock

202

Tx for anaphylactic shock

Epinephrine (1:1000 - IM)

203

Shock due to disruption of parasym and symp

Neurogenic shock

204

“Diabetic shock”
Due to abnormal body metabolism

Metabolic shock

205

Shock due to emotional event or traumatic event

Psychogenic shock

206

BQ: location of prostate gland

Neck of bladder

207

Decrease in erthrocyte count

Anemia

208

BQ: most common type of anemia

Iron deficiency anemia

209

BQ: “Plummer Vinson Syndrome” is assoc with what type of anemia?

Iron def anemia

210

Tx for iron def anemia that causes tooth discoloration

Ferrous sulfate

211

BQ: “Plummer’s dse” is assoc with what disease

Hyperthyroidism

212

Inability of red bone marrow cells to produce RBC

Aplastic anemia

213

Vit B12 def

Pernicious anemia

214

Vit B9 def

Megaloblastic anemia

215

BQ: “beefy tongue” is seen in

Pernicious anemia

216

Hemolytic anemia (“STEf”)

Sickle cell anemia
Thalassemia
Erythroblastosis fetalis

217

Abnormal “hemoglobin” formation

Thalassemia

218

Hx app: Heinz bodies

Thalassemia

219

2 dses with RX: Crewcut/Hair-on-end

Thalassemia
Sickle cell anemia

220

Type of anemia where in Glutamic acid is replaced by VALINE

Sickle cell anemia

221

Lifespan of rbc in sickle cell anemia

10-20 days only!

222

Hemolytic anemia in fetus

Erythroblastosis fetalis
(Rh - mom / Rh+ father)

223

BQ: “GRANULOCYTOPENIA”
- decrease number of granulocytes
(Nakakalito kasi misleading!!)

Agranulocytosis

224

Neoplastic growth of WBC

Leukemia

225

BQ: “not a feature of leukemia”

Features:
1. Dec platelet count = thrombocytopenia
2. Hemorrhage - petechiae/ecchymosis
3. Decrease RBC - anemia
4. Abnormal WBC
5. Gingival hyperplasia
6. Oral ulcerations
7. Oral petechiae

226

BQ: Leukemia common to Down’s syndrome

Acute leukemia

227

BQ: Most common leukemia

CLL

228

BQ: Least common leukemia

AML

229

BQ: Most common acute leukemia in CHILDREN

ALL

230

BQ: Leukemia assoc with PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME (translocation of 22 to 9)

CML

231

BQ: Mutation of chr 22 to 11

Ewings sarcoma

232

BQ: deletion of chr 22

DiGeorge syndrome
(Def thymus and parathyroid)

233

BQ: 3 disease of HISTIOCYTOSIS

BQ: Letterer Siwe disease
BQ: Hand schuller christian disease
Eosinophilic granuloma

234

BQ: Letterer siwe disease is common in what age

<1 yr old