Flashcards in 248 Deck (70):
What are the priorities for #1?
- Clear for the formation
- Plan ahead of the aircraft
- Monitor #2
CPM Nav Comm
Primary responsibility for #2?
Primary responsibility is to maintain flight path deconfliction and proper position as directed by #1.
Other responsibilities for #2?
- Do not hit #1. Unless #2 calls blind, #2 is responsible to deconflict
- Keep #1 in sight
- Be in position and on freq
- Clear for the formation
- Back up #1
How can #1 find #2 if not in sight?
Ripper 2, posit.
When to perform G-awareness?
if profile plans on pulling >3 g's
When to perform KIO?
When safety of flight is a factor or when doubt or confusion exists. Terminate is used when safety of flight is not a factor.
What does #1 do when KIO called?
continues current maneuver w/o changing power setting. Be sure to call blind if it happens.
What will all a/c do during a KIO?
- Clear flight path
- Cease maneuvering
- Acknowledge w/ call sign (wing rock if NORDO)
- Obtain verbal clearance before resuming
When to call Lost Wingman?
When visual contact lost or if unable to maintain position due to disorientation
What does #1 say when #2 calls lost?
acknowledge #2, transmit attitude, which is acknowledged. Heading, altitude, and airspeed can help
Different procedures for Lost Wingman?
- Wings level: #2 turns away using 15 degrees for 15 seconds. #2 then resumes heading and proceeds on separate clearance
- Turns (inside): #2 reduces power for nose-tail, then tells #1 roll out. #2 maintains bank and gets separate clearance
- Turns (outside): #2 reverses turn, 15 deg/15 seconds. Informs #1. #2 rolls out, continues straight ahead, and ensures separation before separate clearance
- Precision & Non-precision approach: #2 turns away from #1 briefly and climbs to FAF or glide slope intercept altitude. #2 goes to MAP and contacts approach.
- Missed Approach: #2 momentarily turns away, tells #1, then continues to MAP while climbing 500 feet above missed approach altitude. #2 separate clearance.
How does practice lost wingman work?
#1 directs. "Ripper 2, go practice lost wingman." "2".
#2 can wait a few seconds. Optional "Ripper 1 roll out." Definitely say "Ripper 2 lost wingman."
#1 responds with attitude with bank angle. "2".
"Ripper 2 visual."
When to breakout?
- SA lost
- Hazard to formation
- In front of #1
- Told to
How does #2 roll out work?
#1 will direct roll out when separation achieved; however, if still visual w/ #1, wingman can roll out on his own
How does responsibility for separation work during a breakout?
If #2 initiates breakout, #2 responsibility to maintain separation until #1 acknowledges breakout, confirms visual contact, or establishes altitude separation
If #1 directs breakout, #1 is responsible for all that
How does calling blind work?
"Ripper 2, blind, one-two thousand."
How close can #2 rejoin if #1 is blind?
No closer than route
How does double blind work?
#1 directs a minimum of 1k feet separation until visual and then rejoin
How does the lead change work?
Go to route
If formation is in route or greater spacing, #1 may use radio to transfer lead
If lead change directed w/ radio, respond w/ radio
Flight stays in position after lead change (route stays in route)
New #1 uses TAS and squawk
Parameters for fingertip
Put stack b/w pitot tube and aft position light
FCP lined up w/ stabilizer
Good fingertip - recognizing small deviations, anticipating inputs, and applying deliberate corrections. Make continuous, small, and controlled corrections to stay in position. Keep the a/c trimmed.
Order to fix deviations in fingertip
Stack, line, spacing
Parameters for route
Max bank 60 deg
2 ship width to 500 feet
LAB to fingertip line
Keep helmet of FCP on horizon
LAB at 2-4 ship widths is flown when anticipating a turn away
Turns in route - Echelon
Visual references for echelon?
Bisect CFS door & plane cutting horizon in half
How to fix position in echelon
- Vertical? Use bank
- Fore and aft? Use power
- Spacing? Back pressure
Reform vs Rejoin
Reform is from one formation to another tighter one (typically fingertip)
Rejoin is from a pitchout (or take spacing)
When to call airspeed out as #1 during rejoin?
If >10 knot difference from 180
Which side to rejoin during straight ahead?
Left, unless told otherwise
How much overtake during rejoin?
How to finish straight ahead rejoin
- 500 feet (see pitot tubes)
○ Make a bid slightly away from #1 2-4 ship widths away
○ Decrease overtake w/ power reduction
○ Arrive in route co-speed (0 LOS)
Move into fingertip
How does turning rejoin start?
#1 - first wing dip in direction of rejoin - 30 deg bank
Visual references for turning rejoin?
- 248 - put #1 2 widths above horizon (Schmid technique is 4)
- Move until no LOS once SA is in the saddle
How to fix aspect during turning rejoin
On rejoin line, if vertical stab moves towards wingtip, AA is increasing, and bank angle might need to decrease. If stab moves towards wing root, AA is decreasing, and bank angle might need to increase
When to drop down to fingertip references during turning rejoin?
Once inside route (arrive co-speed)
How does straight ahead overshoot work?
- Maintain lateral spacing
- Do not turn into #1 while looking
A 3/9 break is easily managed with power reduction
How does turning overshoot work?
- A TJ w/ excessive closure airspeed results in a combo overshoot in a POM about 50 feet lower than #1
- Try to cross #1 6 o clock w/ 2 ship widths spacing
- Breakout if unable to maintain nose-tail
- On outside, DO NOT FLY HIGHER THAN ROUTE ECHELON
- Don't have too much back pressure
What is the fighting wing cone?
30-45 degree cone 500-1000 feet
How is fighting wing initiated?
Only w/ radio: "Ripper 2 go fighting wing"
Reference for 45 AA (applies to fighting wing)?
45AA is when #1 vertical stab is superimposed over the opposite wingtip or the inside wingtip strobe light just forward of the spinner
30-60 degree cone out to 1000 feet
Chase will not stack lower than lead below 1000 AGL
Where does #1 taxi?
On downwind side
How does #2 let #1 know he is ready for t/o?
Landing/taxi lights on and thumbs up
Where to place #2 on form takeoff?
#2 is upwind when crosswind >5
#2 on outside of turn in IMC
#2 on inside of turn in VMC
Spacing during form t/o?
Reference for #2 during form t/o?
Heads on horizon
Which airspeed to clean up during form t/o?
Delay during interval t/o?
Power setting for wingman in interval t/o until rejoined?
Procedures for instrument trail
Same through run up
No less than 20 second spacing
160 KIAS & 30 deg bank in MAX
Both call when passing even-thousands & all heading changes
#2 will delay all turns by the time delay
Maintain 1k separation until visual. Can be reduced to 500
If no visual by level off, 1k separation until visual
Wing Work level parameters
I: 30 deg, 10 pitch, 1-2 G
II: 60 deg, 25 pitch, 1-2 G
III: 90 deg, 35 pitch, 1-3 G
120 KIAS min
Technique: 60% works better than 50%
Blend pitch w/ roll
Hold bank as nose passes through horizon
Pull through horizon wings-level
Either climb or descent is fine to start (climb better, don't descend into to start)
How do you react to turns away in fingertip?
Increase back pressure and climb. More power
When #1 stops the roll, #2 must reduce power as the relative climb is complete
How do you react to turns into in fingertip?
Add slight pressure forward and reduce power
Position for close trail
1-2 ship widths
#1 elevator should be 1/3 out to the wings (just past dihedral break)
Stack right on top of wing
Also imagine wingtips b/w AOA indexer & mag compass
Which side to reform after close trail?
Turn and bank angle during pitchout?
60 deg bank, 180 degrees
Separation during pitchout?
2-3 seconds will give 500-1000 separation
5-7 seconds will give 1500-2000
Visual references for ET?
300 feet: width of AOA indexer
500 feet: 2/3 of AOA indexer (letters discernible but numbers not so much)
1000: 2x size of wingtip flash guard (tail flash not visible)
KIO conditions for ET?
3/9 line & 300 foot bubble
Parameters for ET?
I: turns, 30-60 deg bank, 2 G's, 50%
II: lazy 8, 120 deg bank, moderate G, 85-MAX
III: over the top, as required, as required, 85-MAX
Min 100 knots
Technique for vertical in ET
"Lag at bottom, lead at top"
Technique for turns in ET?
- Turns away: Keep #1 in pure (point to inside wing). Pull with him w/ aligned fuselages
Turns into: Keep #1 in pure until getting close. Then, make a bid to 6 or less back stick pressure. Then, quickly align fuselages and pull hard
How does the blind exercise work?
50% torque or so
Both a/c turn 90 deg off using 45 DOB
#2 calls blind w/ altitude
#1 then calls blind with altitude and establishes 1k separation
#1 coordinates ("reference heading" "reference center radial/DME")
Call visual w/ position
Lowest power setting for #1 on recovery?
- Put #2 on side opposite direction of break
- #2 normally waits 5 seconds before break
#1 lands on cold side if x winds are no factor
What happens if #2 is on inside of closed turn?
"Ripper 2, you are cleared off" w/ pitchout signal
Speed for form approach?
110 (120 for instrument approach)
When to stack as #2 in form approach?
Stack no earlier than glide path intercept & VMC, but no later than 1/2 mile
Formation Go Around & Formation Missed Approach power setting
When is lead offered in an emergency?
- When emergency occurs
- On recovery below weather and able to navigate VFR
- On final w/ field in sight
Procedure for #1 if #2 calls spatial D?
#1 can give attitude, bank, etc. SLUF for 30-60 seconds. Then VMC if possible. If it gets too bad, lost wingman