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1

what is pain?

an unpleasant sensory & emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage

2

what is nociceptive pain?

normal pain-mediated thru Adelta and C fibres
only elicited when intense/noxious stimuli threaten to damage normal tissue
adaptive/biological protective function
high threshold & limited duration

3

what is acute clinical pain?

results from soft tissue injury or inflammation
protective function

4

what is chronic clinical pain?

sustained (>3month) sensory abnormality
ongoing peripheral pathology
maladaptive-no advantage
induction can be spontaneous or evoked
resistant to tx

5

what are the segments of the spinal cord?

cervical (8)
thoracic (12)
lumbar (5)
sacral (5)
coccyngeal (1)

6

what is referred pain?

felt in 1 part of body, pathology elsewhere
referred to sites of embryological origin
sue to convergence of inputs to CNS
internal organ-> superficial area

7

what are nociceptor endings?

free nerve endings
high threshold of activation
respond to intense stimuli usually associated with pain
Adelta=noxious mechanical/heat
C=polymodal
respond to dif noxious stimuli
display sensitisation

8

how does the CNS relay nociceptive cells?

spinal dorsal horn
-spinal trigeminal nucleus

9

what is the CNS pathway for nociception?

spinothalamic tract
-anterior trigemino-thalamic tract

10

what factors affect pain perception?

genetic
molecular
cellular
anatomical
physiological
psychological
social

11

what are the psychological factors of pain perception?

sex
age
cognitive level
previous pain
family
culture

12

what are the situational factors of pain perception?

expectation
control
relevance

13

what are the emotional factors of pain perception?

fear
anger
frustration

14

what is an intrinsic pain modulating mechanism?

endorphin release:
endogenous opioids