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Neisseria meningitidis ( menigococcus)

-inflammation of the meninges, caused by microorganism infecting CSF
-Gram - diplococcus, capsule
- has 12 sterotypes based on capsule carbohydrates
- only 4 subtypes responsible for epidemics (A,B,C, W-135)
-A: Africa
-B: Americas
-C: alberta one


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C. difficile

mostly acquired nosocomically (hospital)
- a normal flora in 3% of healthy adults
-strict anaerobe
-Gram + bacillus
-spore forming that can survive for months
-has endotoxins A and B cause damage to intestine mucosa
A- enterotoxin ( fluid), diarrhea
B-cytotoxin ( pus)- cell death
- dehydration and AAC
-treatment includes antibiotics, probiotics, fecal implants

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Listeria monocytogenes

-gram + bacillus, non-spore forming
-facultatively anaerobic
-motile flagella
-grows well on blood algar plate-sheep blood, wide temp range, pH range, high concentration of NaCl
-usually in nature, soil, animal intestine through contaminated feed
-animals: CNS infection, septic abortion
-humans: food borne disease, meningitis, miscarriage
-ingestion of contaminated food, invasion through gastric epithelial barrier, grows in macrophages ( giant WBC)