3. Cystic Fibrosis, Lung Cancer and Sleep Apnoea Flashcards Preview

BDS2 BAMS Respiratory > 3. Cystic Fibrosis, Lung Cancer and Sleep Apnoea > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3. Cystic Fibrosis, Lung Cancer and Sleep Apnoea Deck (24):
1

What is cystic fibrosis (2)

Inherited disorder
Caused by CFTR recessive gene (chromosome 7)

2

What does CFTR gene cause

Defect in cell chloride channels

3

Result of cystic fibrosis (what does the CFTR gene cause)

Excess sticky solid mucus (rather than rubbery) that traps bacteria

4

Organs mainly affected by cystic fibrosis (2)

Lungs
Pancreas

5

Cystic fibrosis diagnostic methods (2)

Perinatal testing (blood test at birth)
Sweat test

6

What does a sweat test measure

Salt content of sweat

7

Difference in normal/cystic fibrosis sweat test

Cystic fibrosis - greater salt content in sweat

8

Major symptoms of cystic fibrosis (4)

Troublesome cough
Repeated chest infections
Prolonged diarrhoea
Poor weight gain

9

Minor symptoms of cystic fibrosis (4)

Liver dysfunction
Prone to osteoporosis
Diabetes symptoms (prolonged pancreas disease)
Reduced fertility (mainly male)

10

Cystic fibrosis treatment (4)

Physiotherapy
Medication
Exercise
Transplantation

11

Role of cystic fibrosis physiotherapy

Remove mucus secretion from lungs

12

Types of medications used for cystic fibrosis treatment (4)

Bronchodilators (lungs - open airways)
Antibiotics - reduce chest infection frequency
Steroids - reduce airway inflammation
DNase - break down mucus
(Pancreatic enzyme replacement and nutritional supplements)

13

Role of exercise in cystic fibrosis treatment (2)

Maintain optimal lung function
Build physical bulk and strength

14

When is transplantation performed

During end stage lung disease (ESLD)

15

What is ESLD

Extensive fibrosis of lung tissue causing dysfunction

16

Types and frequency of lung tumours (4)

Squamous cell carcinoma (40%)
Small cell (25%)
Large cell (20%)
Adenocarcinoma (15%)

17

What lung tumour is associated with smoking

Squamous cell carcinoma

18

Effects of lung tumours (5)

Cough
Haemoptysis (blood stained sputum)
Pneumonia
Metastasis - bone, liver, brain
Other (dysphagia, SVC obstruction, recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy)

19

Definition of sleep apnoea

Airway obstruction during sleep of a duration of 10s or greater

20

Why does sleep apnoea occur

Because the airway muscle tone drops

21

Effects of sleep apnoea

Increased risk of MI (low oxygen)

22

Types of sleep apnoea (2)

Obstructive (OSA)
Central sleep apnoea
(Mixed form is possible)

23

Measuring sleep apnoea

AHI - apnoea/hypopnoea index
<10 indicates few problems

24

Sleep apnoea treatment (2)

CPAP - continuous positive airway pressure
Mandibular advancement devices can be used if the tongue falls back and blocks the airway