Flashcards in 3 - First Language Acquisition Deck (14)
How does L1A resemble L2A, and what does this mean?
- CV preference and deletion in phonology
- often there is a similar order of acquisition of morphology
- there are similar developmental stages of syntax such as negation and question
These similarities may signify that there are universal mechanisms at work.
What vocal developments are characteristic of an infant in the 1-2 month stage?
- vocalizations are mainly "distress sounds" (crying and fussing)
- other sounds produced are by-products of actions
In the 2-4 month stage, what sounds do infants make?
- Begin making "comfort sounds", typically in response to pleasurable interaction with a caregiver
- Infants begin being able to create glottal stops as their vocal tract develops
- laughter begins appearing at 4 months
What vocal developments are characteristic of the 4-7 month period?
- Vocal play such as babbling begins
- Babbling consists of repetitive vowel-consonant combinations
- Baby's noises begin to sound like phonemes
In the 4-7 month stage, what is the purpose/characteristics of babbling?
- Vocalizations do not yet contain meaning
- Will only babble when calm, rather than when excited or upset
- These sounds are created before an infant begins to construct words
- Babbling in the first year of life typically signifies that speech is developing normally.
What is the 7-month stage of child vocalization?
7 months is the canonical babbling stage.
What is characteristic of the 7 month stage in vocal development?
- Infants are finally able to open and close the vocal tract
- Able to distinguish between the different consonant and vowel sounds
- Sounds are chopped up by rhythmic oral articulations into syllable-like sequences (bobo, nana, dada)
At the 7-month stage of vocal development, what are the usual properties of consonants and vowels?
- Consonants tend to be stops and glides.
- Vowels tend to be low and open.
What is the 10-month stage of speech development?
10 months is the holophrastic stage.
What is characteristic of the holophrastic stage of speech development?
- Infants begin to utter recognizable words
- Generally only single-word phrases
- Words uttered tend to be in context that seems to involve naming
At the 10-month stage, why might infants utter phrases such as "what's that," "peek a boo," or "all gone,"?
Even though the phrases contain more than one word, the infant learns and stores them as single units.
What is characteristic of the 18-25 month stage of development?
- The telegraphic, or two-word, stage syntax begins to emerge
- By 25 months, almost all children are combing words
At 2 to 3 years old, how will have a child's language developed?
Over the course of the second year, sentence length increases dramatically.