3 Infection and Response - Immunity and Treatments Flashcards Preview

AQA Biology Paper 1 11-1A > 3 Infection and Response - Immunity and Treatments > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3 Infection and Response - Immunity and Treatments Deck (22)
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1

How does your skin act as a defence against pathogen entry?

Barrier; Antimicrobial secretions; Microorganism layer

2

How does the trachea defend the body against pathogens?

Secrete mucus to trap pathogens + Cilia move mucus up the trachea to be removed

3

How does the stomach defend the body against pathogens?

Hydrochloric acid destroys microorganisms in mucus/food

4

State the three ways in which white blood cells defend the body.

Engulf pathogens + Produce antibodies + Produce antitoxins

5

What are antibodies?

Proteins that bind to specific antigens on pathogens

6

What are antigens?

Proteins on cell surface for cell recognition

7

What makes up vaccines?

Dead/Inactive pathogens

8

How does vaccination make a person become immune to a disease?

Inactive antigens in vaccine stimulates WBC to make antibodies and memory cells, which stimulates secondary response

9

What is the function of memory cells?

Recognise same pathogen when it invades to produce large number of antibodies in short time

10

What is herd immunity?

Large proportion of population is immune to a disease

11

Painkillers destroy the pathogens in our body. True or false?

FALSE

12

Which pathogen does antibiotics destroy?

Bacteria

13

Why can't antibiotics kill viruses?

Viruses reproduce inside cells, antibiotics cannot enter cells without damaging the cell

14

How might an antibiotic be useless against a bacteria?

Antibiotic resistance

15

Which plant did the heart drug digitalis originated from?

Foxgloves

16

Which drug originated from willow?

Aspirin

17

Name the microorganism that produces penicillin.

Penicillium

18

New drugs are tested extensively for three factors. Name the three factors.

Toxicity, efficacy, dose

19

What living materials are used in preclinical testing?

Cells, tissues, live animals

20

What is the difference between preclinical testing and clinical trials?

PT: Use cells, tissues, animals; CT: Use healthy volunteers and patients

21

Define 'placebo'.

A medicine that does not contain the active drug being tested

22

What is a double-blind trial?

Neither the doctors nor the patients know who gets the real drug/placebo