3 infection and Response - Non-Communicable Diseases Flashcards Preview

AQA Biology Paper 1 11-1A > 3 infection and Response - Non-Communicable Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3 infection and Response - Non-Communicable Diseases Deck (26)
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1

What are non-communicable diseases?

Non-infectious diseases i.e. can't be passed between organisms

2

Define 'carcinogens'.

Cancer-causing substances

3

What is the difference between correlation and causal mechanism?

Correlation: A link between two; Causal: One thing leads to the other

4

State a risk factor for non-communicable diseases.

Lifestyle, substance present in body/environment

5

Define 'tumour'.

A mass of cells grown abnormally (uncontrollable growth)

6

Define 'benign tumours'.

Growth of abnormal cells contained in one area within a membrane, don't invade other tissues

7

Define 'malignant tumours'.

Tumours that invade other tissues and can spread to other parts of the body through blood to form secondary tumours

8

Which tumour leads to cancer - benign or malignant?

Malignant

9

Name a risk factor of developing cancer.

Smoking, obesity, common viruses, UV exposure, genetic factors

10

Name the two ways to treat cancer.

Chemotherapy, radiotherapy

11

What is used in chemotherapy?

Chemicals to kill cancer cells, but also healthy cells in the process

12

What is used in radiotherapy?

Targeted doses of radiation

13

What is the effect of nicotine in tobacco smoke?

Addictiveness

14

Name the carcinogen in tobacco smoke.

Tar

15

Briefly describe how tobacco smoke causes lung infection.

Stops cilia from working, excess mucus (trapping bacteria in lungs)

16

Briefly describe how tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular diseases.

Increase heart rate, damage artery lining, increase risk of clot formation, increase blood pressure

17

State an effect of smoking on fetuses.

Premature birth/Low birthweight/Stillbirth

18

Name a risk factor for obesity.

Poor/unbalanced diet; lack of exercise; High cholesterol diet

19

Name a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

Obesity; Unbalance diet (high sugar diet); Lack of exercise

20

How can a high fat diet lead to coronary heart disease?

Fat deposit in coronary arteries

21

Which organ breaks down alcohol before it causes permanent damage?

Liver

22

State one disease caused by long-term heavy drinking.

Liver cirrhosis/Liver cancer/Brain damage

23

State a risk of drinking alcohol during pregnancy.

Miscarriage/Stillbirths/Premature births/Low birthweight

24

Name the condition that babies may have if their mothers drink lots of alcohol during pregnancy.

Fetal alcohol syndrome

25

How do ionising radiation causes mutation?

Penetrates cells and damage chromosomes

26

Name a source of ionising radiation.

UV light from sun/Radioactive materials in soil, water, air/Medical and dental X-rays/Accidents in nuclear power stations