What are non-communicable diseases?
Non-infectious diseases i.e. can’t be passed between organisms
What is the difference between correlation and causal mechanism?
Correlation: A link between two; Causal: One thing leads to the other
State a risk factor for non-communicable diseases.
Lifestyle, substance present in body/environment
A mass of cells grown abnormally (uncontrollable growth)
Define ‘benign tumours’.
Growth of abnormal cells contained in one area within a membrane, don’t invade other tissues
Define ‘malignant tumours’.
Tumours that invade other tissues and can spread to other parts of the body through blood to form secondary tumours
Which tumour leads to cancer - benign or malignant?
Name a risk factor of developing cancer.
Smoking, obesity, common viruses, UV exposure, genetic factors
Name the two ways to treat cancer.
What is used in chemotherapy?
Chemicals to kill cancer cells, but also healthy cells in the process
What is used in radiotherapy?
Targeted doses of radiation
What is the effect of nicotine in tobacco smoke?
Name the carcinogen in tobacco smoke.
Briefly describe how tobacco smoke causes lung infection.
Stops cilia from working, excess mucus (trapping bacteria in lungs)
Briefly describe how tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular diseases.
Increase heart rate, damage artery lining, increase risk of clot formation, increase blood pressure
State an effect of smoking on fetuses.
Premature birth/Low birthweight/Stillbirth
Name a risk factor for obesity.
Poor/unbalanced diet; lack of exercise; High cholesterol diet
Name a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
Obesity; Unbalance diet (high sugar diet); Lack of exercise
How can a high fat diet lead to coronary heart disease?
Fat deposit in coronary arteries
Which organ breaks down alcohol before it causes permanent damage?
State one disease caused by long-term heavy drinking.
Liver cirrhosis/Liver cancer/Brain damage
State a risk of drinking alcohol during pregnancy.
Miscarriage/Stillbirths/Premature births/Low birthweight
Name the condition that babies may have if their mothers drink lots of alcohol during pregnancy.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
How do ionising radiation causes mutation?
Penetrates cells and damage chromosomes
Name a source of ionising radiation.
UV light from sun/Radioactive materials in soil, water, air/Medical and dental X-rays/Accidents in nuclear power stations