What are communicable diseases?
Diseases caused by pathogens that can be transmitted from one individual to another
Microorganisms that cause diseases
State of physical and mental well-being
Suggest three factors that affect health.
Diet/Stress/life situations (eg. Hygiene)/pathogens/immune system
State the four types of pathogens.
Bacteria, viruses, protists, fungi
How do bacteria make you ill?
Reproduce rapidly and damage cells + Produce toxins
How do viruses make you ill?
Produce inside body cells, causing damage
How can pathogens be spread?
By air/droplet infection, direct contact, water
State one method to prevent the spread of disease.
Isolation; Maintain good hygiene; Destroy vectors; Vaccination
Name a viral disease that leads to blindness and brain damage.
How can measles spread?
Name the pathogen that causes AIDS.
HIV (Human immunodefiency virus)
How can AIDS be spread?
Sexual contact; Exchange of bodily fluids (shared needles, blood transfusion)
How can AIDS be treated?
Antiretrovial drugs to control (not cure) it
Name a viral disease in plants.
Tobacco mosaic virus
Describe the appearance of a plant infected with tobacco mosaic virus.
Mosaic pattern of discoloration on leaves
How does tobacco mosaic virus affect the plants?
Destroy chloroplasts, so reduce photosynthesis
How can tobacco mosaic virus be spread?
Viral diseases can be cured by antibiotics. True or false?
Where can Salmonella bacteria be found?
Raw meat, chickens, eggs
State one symptom of Salmonella poisoning.
Which pathogen causes gonorrhoea?
How does gonorrhoea spread?
State a symptom of gonorrhoea.
Yellow/green discharge from penis/vagina; pain on urination
State a long-term effect of gonorrhoea.
Long-term pelvic pain, infertility, ectopic pregnancies
How can the spread of gonorrhoea be stopped?
Use condom; Limit sexual partners
How can we use Agrobacterium tumefaciens in plants?
They cause galls –> genetic manipulation
How can bacterial diseases be treated?
Name a fungal disease in humans.
Which pathogen causes rose black spot?
State a symptom of rose black spot.
Which pathogen causes malaria.
How is malaria spread?
By female Anopheles mosquitoes
How does malaria affect the body?
Damages blood and liver cells
State a symptom of malaria.
How can the spread of malaria be stopped?
Use mosquito nets; Use insecticides; Remove standing water; Take antimalarial drugs