How does your skin act as a defence against pathogen entry?
Barrier; Antimicrobial secretions; Microorganism layer
How does the trachea defend the body against pathogens?
Secrete mucus to trap pathogens + Cilia move mucus up the trachea to be removed
How does the stomach defend the body against pathogens?
Hydrochloric acid destroys microorganisms in mucus/food
State the three ways in which white blood cells defend the body.
Engulf pathogens + Produce antibodies + Produce antitoxins
What are antibodies?
Proteins that bind to specific antigens on pathogens
What are antigens?
Proteins on cell surface for cell recognition
What makes up vaccines?
How does vaccination make a person become immune to a disease?
Inactive antigens in vaccine stimulates WBC to make antibodies and memory cells, which stimulates secondary response
What is the function of memory cells?
Recognise same pathogen when it invades to produce large number of antibodies in short time
What is herd immunity?
Large proportion of population is immune to a disease
Painkillers destroy the pathogens in our body. True or false?
Which pathogen does antibiotics destroy?
Why can’t antibiotics kill viruses?
Viruses reproduce inside cells, antibiotics cannot enter cells without damaging the cell
How might an antibiotic be useless against a bacteria?
Which plant did the heart drug digitalis originated from?
Which drug originated from willow?
Name the microorganism that produces penicillin.
New drugs are tested extensively for three factors. Name the three factors.
Toxicity, efficacy, dose
What living materials are used in preclinical testing?
Cells, tissues, live animals
What is the difference between preclinical testing and clinical trials?
PT: Use cells, tissues, animals; CT: Use healthy volunteers and patients
A medicine that does not contain the active drug being tested
What is a double-blind trial?
Neither the doctors nor the patients know who gets the real drug/placebo