3: Paediatric aspects of diabetes and endocrinology Flashcards Preview

Endocrine Week 4 2017/18 > 3: Paediatric aspects of diabetes and endocrinology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3: Paediatric aspects of diabetes and endocrinology Deck (41)
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1

What type of diabetes is common in children?

Type 1 diabetes

2

In what emergency situation can children be newly diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes?

DKA

3

Type 1 diabetes in children has a strong ___ component.

genetic

4

What sort of precipitating event can trigger Type 1 diabetes in children?

Viral illness

5

In the pre-diabetes change, what biochemical abnormality can be detected in children?

Production of islet cell autoantibodies

6

What are the signs of hyperglycaemia in children?

Four Ts

tired

thirsty

toilet (bedwetting)

thin (weight loss)

7

What are major signs of DKA in children?

Vomiting

Abdominal pain

Kussmaul breathing +/- pear drop breath

8

A fasting blood glucose of over ___ mmol/L is diagnostic of Type 1 diabetes.

7 mmol/L

9

A random blood glucose of over __ mmol/L is diagnostic of diabetes.

11.0 mmol/L

10

Apart from symptoms, what do you need to diagnose a child with DKA?

pH < 7.3

Ketonuria

11

What is a fatal complication of DKA in children?

Cerebral oedema

12

What is the most common symptom of new onset diabetes in children?

Bedwetting

(noctural enuresis)

13

What tests would you perform on a child who you suspect has diabetes?

Random blood glucose

Urinalysis

14

As cerebral oedema is a fatal complication of DKA in children, what must be administered carefully?

Fluids

15

In DKA, fluids and insulin are administered based on the ___ of the child.

weight

16

In DKA of patients under 18 years, when is insulin given?

1 hour after fluids

17

A goal of diabetes treatment in children is ensuring they have normal ___ and development and their education isn't disrupted.

normal growth and development

normal education

18

What are the HbA1c targets in children?

< 48 mmol/mol in first year after diagnosis

< 58 mmol/mol thereafter

Obviously the lower the better

19

What microvascular screens are done for children in diabetes clinics?

BP

Retinal screening

Urinalysis

20

What are the blood glucose targets

a) before meals

b) 2hrs after meals

c) at bedtime?

a) Before meals: 4-7 mmol/L

b) After meals: 5-9 mmol/L

c) Bedtime: 4-7 mmol/L

21

What type of insulin therapy are children with Type 1 diabetes offered?

CSII

(insulin pump)

22

What new technology avoids the use of skin prick tests to measure blood glucose?

Glucose sensor

23

What thyroid abnormalities may babies be born with?

Dysplastic, absent or abnormal-site thyroids

24

Congenital thyroid diseases may also be caused by problems with the ___ gland.

pituitary gland

25

What are some signs of congenital thyroid disease?

Delayed jaundice

Poor feeding, normal weight gain

Hypotonia (reduced muscle strength)

Skin and hair changes

26

Which general test is carried out on Day 5 after birth to diagnose a variety of diseases in babies?

Guthrie test

27

Where can ectopic thyroid be found?

Sublingual

28

What is the result of untreated hypothyroidism in babies?

Cretinism

29

What are some signs of hypothyroidism in children?

Slow growth, delayed puberty

Poor general health

Learning difficulties

30

What will a thyroid function test look like in a hypothyroid child?

High TSH

Low T3/T4