What are the two parts of the adrenal gland?
What are the three zones of the adrenal cortex?
What hormone is produced in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex?
What hormones are produced in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex?
What hormones are produced in the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex?
Which cells, found in the adrenal medulla, secrete catecholamines?
What is the precursor molecule for steroid hormones?
Which axis regulates cortisol and androgen production by the adrenal cortex?
What regulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex?
Which is regulated by blood pressure & renal perfusion
Corticosteroids bind to which kind of receptor?
to alter transcription of protein
What are some
c) bone and soft tissue
effects of cortisol?
a) Increased BP, cardiac output and renal perfusion
b) Increased blood glucose level, increased lipolysis and proteolysis, central redistribution of fat
c) Reduced serum calcium (inc. rate of onset of osteoporosis), reduced rate of wound healing
Cortisol (accelerates / dampens down) the immune response.
dampens down immune response
Which physiological processes are corticosteroids used to suppress?
Give examples of specific diseases.
so allergic diseases like asthma, eczema and anaphylaxis
so inflammatory diseases like RA, UC and Crohn's disease
In which diseases are exogenous corticosteroids used as a replacement for a deficiency in the body?
e.g Addison's disease (autoimmune reaction resulting in deficiency of cortisol), non-functioning adrenal tumours, non-functioning pituitary tumours
Aldosterone is a (glucocorticoid / mineralocorticoid) produced by the adrenal cortex.
What is its function?
Stimulates Na+ reabsorption in the distal tubules and collecting ducts, therefore controlling sodium homeostasis and blood pressure via RAAS
What is the commonest cause of primary adrenal insufficiency?
Also consider Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Apart from Addison's disease, what else can cause primary adrenal insufficiency?
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Adrenal insufficiency caused by a problem with the gland itself is (primary / secondary).
Addison's disease is an ___ disease.
What is destroyed by autoimmune reaction in Addison's disease?
70% of people with Addison's disease are positive for what?
People with Addison's disease are more likely to have other ___ diseases.
What are the features of Addison's disease?
Dizziness and hypotension
Abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea
What kind of pigmentation is common in people with Addison's disease?
What will be seen on biochemical tests of people with Addison's disease?
Which stimulation test is used to diagnose adrenal insufficiency?
In primary adrenal insufficiency, ACTH levels will be very (high / low).
causing skin pigmentation
In secondary adrenal insufficiency, what will the patient's ACTH be like?
Will they be pigmented?
Normal or low
Why are aldosterone levels low in people with Addison's?
Destruction of adrenal cortex
How should Addison's disease be managed?
IV hydrocortisone (to replace cortisol)
Fludrocortisone (to replace aldosterone)