2: Pathology of pituitary and adrenal glands Flashcards Preview

Endocrine Week 4 2017/18 > 2: Pathology of pituitary and adrenal glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2: Pathology of pituitary and adrenal glands Deck (53)
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1

Pituitary pathologies are caused by what two types of abnormal function?

Hyperfunction

Hypofunction

2

Which recess of the middle cranial fossa is the pituitary gland found in?

Sella turcica

3

What membrane of dura mater covers the pituitary gland?

Diaphragm sellae

4

Which structure connects the pituitary to the hypothalamus?

Pituitary stalk

5

Which pituitary gland is

a) an extension of the neural aspect of the hypothalamus?

b) anterior?

a) posterior

b) anterior

6

What is the anterior pituitary also known as?

Adenohypophysis

7

Which hormones does the anterior pituitary secrete?

Trophic: TSH, ACTH, LH and FSH

Non-trophic: GH and PRL

8

Which hormones does the posterior pituitary secrete?

ADH

Oxytocin

9

What is the posterior pituitary also known as?

Neurohypophysis

10

On histology of the pituitary gland, all the cells look different - why is this?

Loads of different cells which produce different hormones

11

What causes anterior pituitary hyperfunction?

Pituitary tumours

Adenomas and carcinomas

12

What causes anterior pituitary hypofunction?

Surgery, radiation

Haemorrhage into gland

Tumours

Inflammatory conditions

13

What is Sheehan syndrome?

What kind of abnormal pituitary function does it cause?

Ischaemic necrosis of pituitary gland following childbirth

Pituitary hypofunction

14

What are two notable conditions associated with the posterior pituitary?

Diabetes insipidus

SIADH

15

What is a benign tumour of the anterior pituitary known as?

Pituitary adenoma

16

What genetic syndrome are numerous pituitary adenomas a presentation of?

MEN1

multiple endocrine neoplasia

17

Pituitary adenomas are classified by the type of ___ they produce.

hormone

18

Can pituitary adenomas produce more than one hormone?

Yes

19

Do pituitary adenomas have to produce hormone?

No, similarly to thyroid, some are non-functional

20

Why may large pituitary adenomas cause visual field defects?

Compression of optic chiasm

21

What disease involves multiple hormone deficiencies of the pituitary gland?

Panhypopituitarism

22

Why may large pituitary adenomas cause hypopituitarism?

(Infarction due to) compression

23

What are three types of pituitary adenoma and which diseases will they cause?

Prolactinoma - hyperprolactinaemia (galactorrhoea, infertility, loss of libido, amenorrhoea)

GHoma - acromegaly

ACTHoma - Cushing's disease

24

What are three causes of panhypopituitarism?

Tumours (primary or metastatic)

Granulomatous disease e.g sarcoidosis

Sheehan syndrome

25

The anterior pituitary gland is a remnant of which embryological structure?

Rafke's pouch

26

Which rare, benign tumour is most commonly seen in children and arises from Rafke's pouch during development?

Craniopharyngioma

27

What are two important posterior pituitary syndromes?

Diabetes insipidus

SIADH

28

Production of ectopic hormone e.g ADH, ACTH may be caused by what?

Functioning tumours elsewhere e.g small cell carcinomas of the lung

"Paraneoplastic syndrome"

29

What are the two parts of the adrenal gland?

Cortex

Medulla

30

The adrenal medulla is an extension of the ___ nervous system.

sympathetic