Pituitary pathologies are caused by what two types of abnormal function?
Which recess of the middle cranial fossa is the pituitary gland found in?
What membrane of dura mater covers the pituitary gland?
Which structure connects the pituitary to the hypothalamus?
Which pituitary gland is
a) an extension of the neural aspect of the hypothalamus?
What is the anterior pituitary also known as?
Which hormones does the anterior pituitary secrete?
Trophic: TSH, ACTH, LH and FSH
Non-trophic: GH and PRL
Which hormones does the posterior pituitary secrete?
What is the posterior pituitary also known as?
On histology of the pituitary gland, all the cells look different - why is this?
Loads of different cells which produce different hormones
What causes anterior pituitary hyperfunction?
Adenomas and carcinomas
What causes anterior pituitary hypofunction?
Haemorrhage into gland
What is Sheehan syndrome?
What kind of abnormal pituitary function does it cause?
Ischaemic necrosis of pituitary gland following childbirth
What are two notable conditions associated with the posterior pituitary?
What is a benign tumour of the anterior pituitary known as?
What genetic syndrome are numerous pituitary adenomas a presentation of?
multiple endocrine neoplasia
Pituitary adenomas are classified by the type of ___ they produce.
Can pituitary adenomas produce more than one hormone?
Do pituitary adenomas have to produce hormone?
No, similarly to thyroid, some are non-functional
Why may large pituitary adenomas cause visual field defects?
Compression of optic chiasm
What disease involves multiple hormone deficiencies of the pituitary gland?
Why may large pituitary adenomas cause hypopituitarism?
(Infarction due to) compression
What are three types of pituitary adenoma and which diseases will they cause?
Prolactinoma - hyperprolactinaemia (galactorrhoea, infertility, loss of libido, amenorrhoea)
GHoma - acromegaly
ACTHoma - Cushing's disease
What are three causes of panhypopituitarism?
Tumours (primary or metastatic)
Granulomatous disease e.g sarcoidosis
The anterior pituitary gland is a remnant of which embryological structure?
Which rare, benign tumour is most commonly seen in children and arises from Rafke's pouch during development?
What are two important posterior pituitary syndromes?
Production of ectopic hormone e.g ADH, ACTH may be caused by what?
Functioning tumours elsewhere e.g small cell carcinomas of the lung
What are the two parts of the adrenal gland?
The adrenal medulla is an extension of the ___ nervous system.