Flashcards in 3 Science Test Deck (42):
What is weathering?
The mechanical and chemical processes that change objects on Earth’s surface over time are called weathering.
What are three types of sediments?
Sand, silt, clay
What is mechanical weathering?
When physical processes naturally break rocks into smaller pieces, mechanical weathering occurs
What is chemical weathering?
Chemical weathering changes the materials that are part of a rock into new materials.
What are the three main types of chemical weathering?
Water, dissolving by acids, oxidation
Scientists use pH, which is a property of solutions, to learn if a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. They rate the pH of a solution on a scale from 0 to 14, where 7 is neutral.
What is oxidation?
Oxidation combines the element oxygen with other elements or molecules.
Where is chemical weathering the fastest?
In warm, wet places
What is soil?
Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, rock fragments, decayed organic matter, water, and air.
What is organic matter?
Organic matter is the remains of something that was once alive.
What are pores?
The amounts of water and air vary in the small holes and spaces in soil.
What is decomposition?
Decomposition is the process of changing once-living material into dark-colored organic matter.
What are the five factors of soil?
Parent material, climate, topography, biota, and time
What is parent material?
The starting material of soil is parent material.
What is climate?
The average weather of an area is its climate.
What is topography?
Topography is the shape and steepness of the landscape.
What is biota?
All of the organisms that live in a region are called biota
What are horizons?
Horizons are layers of soil formed from the movement of the products of weathering.
What are the five layers of soil?
O- organic matter
A- dirt, most likely what we would see if we dug a hole
C- weathered parent material
What are the three ways of observing soil?
Observing and measuring soil properties, soil properties that support life, soil types and locations
What is erosion?
Erosion is the removal of weathered material from one location to another.
What is deposition?
Deposition is the laying down or settling of eroded material.
What is a meander?
A meander is a broad, C-shaped curve in a stream.
What is a longshore current?
A longshore current is a current that flows parallel to the shoreline.
What is a delta?
A delta is a large deposit of sediment that forms where a stream enters a large body of water.
What is a floodplain?
A floodplain is a wide, flat area next to a river.
What is a levee?
A levee is a long, low ridge of soil along a river.
What is abrasion?
Abrasion is the grinding away of rock or other surfaces as particles carried by wind, water, or ice scrape against them
What is a dune?
A dune is a pile of windblown sand.
What is a loess?
Loess is a crumbly, windblown deposit of silt and clay.
What is one way to slow the effect of wind erosion?
To leave fields unplowed after harvesting crops
What is mass wasting?
Mass wasting is the downhill movement of a large mass of rocks or soil because of the pull of gravity.
What is a landslide?
a landslide is the rapid downhill movement of soil, loose rocks, and boulders
Explain a rockfall, slump, and creep
All examples of mass wasting events
Rockfall- it's exactly what it says it is. A ROCKFALL
Slump- big piece of land falling
Creep- when stuff creeps down
What is talus?
Talus is a pile of angular rocks and sediment from a rockfall
What is a glacier?
A glacier is a large mass of ice that formed on land and moves slowly across Earth’s surface.
What are the two main types of glaciers?
Alpine glaciers and ice sheets
What is a horn?
Sharp peak on mountain
What is an arête?
Is a shape ridge of rocks formed between two glaciers
What is till?
Till is a mixture of various sizes of sediment deposited by a glacier.
What is a moraine?
a moraine is a mound or ridge of unsorted sediment deposited by a glacier.