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What are the three major rock types?



How do sedimentary and igneous rock change into metamorphic?

Extreme heat and pressure


How do metamorphic change into igneous?

Melting in magma, then cooling and crystallizing into igneous.


How do igneous rock change into sedimentary?

Uplift, then weathering and erosion which makes sediments. Then deposition, compaction, and cementation. That creates sedimentary.


What are the five characteristics of a mineral?

Naturally occurring, definite chemical composition, crystalline form, solid, inorganic


What are the three ways minerals form?

Minerals from cool solutions, minerals from hot solutions, minerals from magma.


What happens when minerals form from cool solutions?

When rain or snow melts, the water seeps into the ground and flows over the earth, intersecting with minerals in rocks and the soil. These elements become dissolved solids. Water can only hold so many minerals. During dry conditions, the water evaporates crystals form.


What happens when mineral form from magma?

When lave erupts, it cools above ground. Then it can form crystals.


What happens when minerals form from hot solutions?

Water of the earths surface can flow into cracks in the crust and hot places. Sometimes these can carry with them dissolved solids. Then it can crystallize and form new minerals.


What are the seven physical properties of minerals?

Color, luster, streak, hardness, cleavage and fracture, density, and special properties(such as texture, smell, greasy or smooth, or if it is magnetic)


What is luster?

The way a mineral reflects or absorbs light at its surface is called luster.


What is hardness?

Hardness is the resistance of a mineral to being scratched.


What is the hardest mineral on the Moh scale- at a hardness value of 10?



What is cleavage and fracture?

If a mineral breaks with smooth, flat surfaces, it has cleavage.
If a mineral breaks and forms uneven surfaces, it has fracture.


What is density?

The density of an object is equal to its mass divided by its volume (g/cm3)


What is extrusive and intrusive?

When volcanic material erupts and cools and crystallizes on Earth’s surface, it forms a type of igneous rock called extrusive rock.
Igneous rocks that form as magma cools underground are called intrusive rocks.


How do you identify igneous rock?

Texture and composition


What is compaction and cementation?

-The weight from the layers of sediment forces out fluids and decreases the space between grains during a process called compaction.
-When minerals dissolved in water crystallize between sediment grains, the process is called cementation.


What are the three types of sedimentary rock?

-Sedimentary rocks that are made up of broken pieces of minerals and rock fragments are known as clastic rocks. The broken pieces and fragments are called clasts.
-Chemical rocks form when minerals crystallize directly from water.
-Biochemical rock is a sedimentary rock that was formed by organisms or contains the remains of organisms.


What is plastic deformation?

The permanent change in shape by bending and folding is called plastic deformation.


What is foliated and non- foliated rock?

-Foliated rocks contain parallel layers of flat and elongated minerals.
-Metamorphic rocks that have mineral grains with a random, interlocking texture are nonfoliated rocks.


What is contact and regional metamorphism?

-During contact metamorphism, magma comes in contact with existing rock, and its thermal energy and gases interact with the surrounding rock, forming new metamorphic rock.
-Regional metamorphism is the formation of metamorphic rock bodies that are hundreds of square kilometers in size.