Flashcards in %Air Deck (18):
What is wind?
Wind is the movement of air from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.
Let's talk air pressure. What's the deal with the tropics and the north and south poles?
Well, dramatic question asker, I don't know. Lemme cheat and look in the book. Ok here's what I got:
Since the poles don't receive that much direct sunlight and are cooler, air pressure is pretty high there.
Since the tropics receive much direct sunlight and are warm, air pressure is low there.
What is the Coriolis effect?
Earth’s rotation causes moving air and water to appear to move to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.
What does the contrast between high and low pressure AND the Coriolis effect create?
The contrast between high and low pressure and the Coriolis effect creates distinct wind patterns, called prevailing winds.
What are the trade winds?
The trade winds are steady winds that flow from east to west between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude.
What are doldrums?
At about 30°N and 30°S air cools and sinks. This creates areas of high pressure and light, calm winds at the equator, called the doldrums. Sailboats without engines can be stranded in the doldrums.
What are the westerlies?
The prevailing westerlies are steady winds that flow from west to east between latitudes 30°N and 60°N, and 30°S and 60°S.
What are the polar easterlies?
The polar easterlies are cold winds that blow from the east to the west near the North Pole and the South Pole.
What is the jet stream?
Near the top of the troposphere is a narrow band of high winds called the jet stream. Jet streams flow around Earth from west to east, often making large loops to the north or the south. Jet streams influence weather as they move cold air from the poles toward the tropics and warm air from the tropics toward the poles. Jet streams can move at speeds up to 300 km/h and are more unpredictable than prevailing winds.
What is a sea breeze?
A sea breeze is wind that blows from the sea to the land due to local temperature and pressure differences.
What is a land breeze?
A land breeze is a wind that blows from the land to the sea due to local temperature and pressure differences. On sunny days, land warms up faster than water does. The air over the land warms by conduction and rises, creating an area of low pressure. The air over the water sinks, creating an area of high pressure because it is cooler. The differences in pressure over the warm land and the cooler water result in a cool wind that blows from the sea onto land.
What is air pollution?
The contamination of air by harmful substances including gases and smoke is called air pollution.
Explain non-point and point sources of pollution.
Nonpoint- it has no point...you can't point a finger at it and blame it. EXAMPLE: large city
Point- is a pollution that comes from an identifiable source.
EXAMPLE: large factories
There is also natural point source, for both.
Example for point is a volcano.
Example for non point is bacteria found in swamps and marshes
What is acid precipitation?
When sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides combine with moisture in the atmosphere and form precipitation that has a pH lower than that of normal rainwater, it is called acid precipitation.
What is smog?
Photochemical smog is air pollution that forms from the interaction between chemicals in the air and sunlight. Smog forms when nitrogen dioxide, released in gasoline engine exhaust, reacts with sunlight.
What is particulate matter?
Particulate matter is a mixture of dust, acids, and other chemicals that can be hazardous to human health. The smallest particles are the most harmful.
What is the clean air act?
The Clean Air Act is an example of how government can help fight pollution. Since the Clean Air Act became law in 1970, steps have been taken to reduce automobile emissions.