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Flashcards in 30-second Psychology Deck (74):
1

Watson's Behaviorism

We should talk about behavior not mental states

2

Wilhelm Wundt's Introspection

Looking into our own minds and reporting what we discover

3

Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis

Means of understanding behavior

4

The 3 components of personality

The Id, the Ego, the Superego

5

The Id

Governed by pleasure and seeks immediate gratification

6

The Ego

Concerned with making rational decisions

7

The Superego

Giving rise to personality conflicts

8

Cognitivism

The attempt to understand the mind in terms of the information it processes and the forms in which is stores this information

9

Evolutionary psychology

To find common principles in the behavior of human and animals

10

Positive psychology

Focus more on people's strengths and virtues

11

Schemos

Basics building blocks on intelligent behavior

12

Sensori-motor stage

(0-2 y/o) the child thinks by perceiving objects and acting upon them

13

Pre-operational stage

(2-7 y/o) development and use of mental images, symbols, and language; self-centered

14

Concrete operational stage

(7-11 y/o) less self-centers and can think logically but needs to manipulate objects

15

Formal operational

(11-15 y/o) ability to manipulate ideas and think hypothetically about situations not yet experienced

16

Eldest child

Socially dominant and intellectual, tends to seek approval from others because they are no longer the center of attention

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Middle child

Competitive and diplomatic

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Youngest child

Selfish and demanding

19

Kohlberg's moral stages (KMS) stage 1

Sense of what is right or wrong is determined by what is punishable and what is not

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KMS stage 2

What others want and what brings reward

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KMS stage 3

Good behavior is whatever pleases and helps others

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KMS stage 4

Showing respect for authority

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KMS stage 5

Kids understand that rules should be followed but can be changed by the rights of the individual

24

KMS stage 6

Actions are determined by self-chosen ethical principles-justice, equality, and respect for human dignity- established through reflection

25

Facial action coding system (FACS)

Index of facial expressions

26

Cognitive dissonance

Whenever a pair of incompatible beliefs or decisions collide in our mind it provokes a kind of mental discomfort

27

Somatic marker hypothesis

People have trouble making decisions when parts of their brain are damaged

28

The prefrontal cortex

Stores knowledge about emotions. People who damage it lose some of their emotions

29

Confirmation bias

The tendency to seek out evidence that supports our existing beliefs

30

Ego-depleted

When we're willpower fatigued

31

Restraint bias

The tendency for people to be unduly optimistic about their ability to control their behavior when aroused

32

Expected utility

A way of working out people's betting preferences taking into account all factors including the risk aversions and personal preference

33

The bystander effect

The presence of other people reduces out own sense of responsibility in a situation

34

Watson's behaviorism

Using experiments with controlled stimuli and the responses of those inputs

35

Vygotsky's zone

Children learn better with instructors; helps children strive toward independence and self-sufficiency

36

Birth order

Rank and age affect a child's personality

37

Harlow's monkeys

A child feels more secure with a comforting parent rather than one who only provides them with food

38

Ekman's universal emotions

Human expressions are universal

39

Festinger's boring task

Sometimes people say one thing but mean another

40

The James-Lange theory of emotion

Our actions emit our emotion: a stimulus causes an action

41

Baumeister's ego depletion

Straining to control yourself in one situation can easily make you swayed later on

42

Irving Janis's groupthink

Extreme form of group polarization; like-minded group, group leader, isolation; leads to extreme actions

43

Gordon Allport's intergroup contact

By coming into contact with others we discover that they're human too

44

Zombardo's prison

When people are given a position of power they tend to abuse it

45

Stanley Milgram's obedience study

We are more likely to do harmful things of directed by a person of authority

46

Stereotype threat

The anxiety of a stereotype causes the undermining of one's performance

47

Social identity theory

People will show allegiance to groups who share things in common with them

48

The lake wobegon effect

Majority of people think they are better than others

49

The big five (personality)

Extraversion, neuroticism (anxiety and apprehension), conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness (creativity and insight)

50

Attribution

The psychological process of discerning the cause of things

51

Fundamental attribution error

The tendency to attribute the causes of other people's behavior to the intrinsic natures, ignoring constraining circumstances

52

Cognitive bias

The tendency for people to make false judgements

53

Nature via nurture

Humans are shaped both by their genetic inheritance and their life's experiences often in an interactive fashion

54

The Flynn effect

Humans are clever; IQ tests today are higher than ones back then

55

Ericsson's 10,000-hour rule

Anyone can be an expert if they put in enough effort to practice

56

Nominative determinism

The idea that the destiny of these individuals is shaped by their names

57

Roger sperry's split brains

The left side controls things like language while the right side has to do more with visual abilities

58

Prepared learning system

We have developed a fear system that is prepared for certain situations due to the effect of evolution

59

Charcot's hysteria

Blindness and paralysis can be caused by the unconscious mind blocking access to essential brain functions

60

Rosenhan's insane places

There is no definition for sane and insane

61

Psychosis

A mind-bending state in which people develop delusions and hallucinations as part of mental illnesses; people show changes in the brain's use of the chemical messenger dopamine

62

Abraham Maslow self-actualized

Where we are at peace with ourselves and others and have the psychological freedom to become everything that one is capable of becoming

63

Aaron beck's cognitive therapy

Based in scientific studies; detects patters and use alternatives when dealing with self defeating habits

64

Autism

People with autism can be severely impaired at understanding how there's think, feel, and behave but can be better at understanding systems

65

The placebo effect

Knowing the expectations of a treatment will affect how your body and brain processes it

66

Classical or Pavlovian conditioning

Learning an association between two stimuli

67

The Sapir-whorf hypothesis

we can't understand some concepts because we lack the words

68

Noam chomsky's universal grammar

Understood by all humans and enables us to acquire language

69

3 components of grammar

Syntactical (structure), phonological (sound of words), and semantic (meaning)

70

Loftus's false memories

Some memories can get distorted without our realization

71

Embodied cognition

We describe things in metaphors (grasping the meaning of a book)

72

Broadbentms bottleneck

We separate out individual voices by focusing on key characteristics- the speakers gender, location, and pitch

73

Miller's seven

We memorize things better by breaking it into chunks

74

Consciousness

The way the brain prioritizes