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Flashcards in 3C1 Deck (29):
1

Environment

Every nongenetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

2

Chromosomes

Threadlike structured made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

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DNA

A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

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Genes

The biochemical units of hereditary that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

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Genome

The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes

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A small difference in DNA...

Goes a long way

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Our genetic traits help explain....

Our shared human nature and our human diversity

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Identical twins

Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that spits into two, creating two genetically identical organisms

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Twins share the same genes....

But don't have the same number of copies

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One twin's placenta may.....

supply better nourishment than the other

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Fraternal twins

Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer that brothers and sisters, but the share a fetal environment

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Identical twins are more similar...

Than fraternal twins in outgoingness and emotional instability

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Separated twins live...

Identical lifestyles

14

Virtual twins

Same age, biologically unrelated siblings

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Genetic relatives

Biological parents and siblings

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Adoptees are more like their....

Biological parents than their adopted ones

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Heritability

The proportion of variation amount individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending in the range of populations and environments studied

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If everything is equal and healthy...

Then heritability would increase

19

If all people had similar heredities. But were raised in different environments...

Heredity would be lower

20

Putting people in new social context....

Can change aggressiveness

21

Genes and environment- nature and nurture-

Work together like two hands clapping

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Genes are

Self regulating

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Interact

The interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)

24

Environments trigger...

Gene activity

25

Nature...

Via nurture

26

Molecular genetics

The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

27

Molecular behavior genetics

To find some of the many genes that influence normal human traits such as body weight, sexual orientation, and Extraversion, and also to explore the mechanisms that control gene expression

28

Genetic tests can now reveal...

At risk populations for many diseases

29

Behavior genetics

The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior