3.1- Exchange surfaces Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.1- Exchange surfaces Deck (48)
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1

Do small animals have a large or small surface area to volume ratio?

Large

2

How do you calculate surface area to volume ratio?

Divide the surface area by the volume

3

Why do single-celled organisms normally not need specialist transport systems?

The substances can diffuse directly into or out of the cell across the membrane
The diffusion rate is quick because of the small distances

4

Why do multicellular organisms normally need specialist transport systems?

There's a large diffusion distance
They have a low surface area to volume ratio
They have a high metabolic rate, so use up oxygen in glucose faster

5

What three features improve the efficiency of specialised exchange surfaces?

Large surface area
Thin
Good blood supply / ventilation

6

How are root hair cells adapted for efficient exchange?

The cells and plant roots grow into long have which stick out into the soil and gives the roots and large surface area which increases the rate of absorption of water and mineral ions

7

How are alveoli specially adapted for efficient exchange?

Each alveolus is made from a single layer of thin flat cells which decrease the diffusion distance
The large capillary network surrounding each alveolus helps maintain concentration gradient

8

Name 4 substances an organism needs to exchange with its environment.

Oxygen, glucose, carbon dioxide, urea

9

How are fish gills specially adapted for efficient exchange?

They contain a large network of capillaries and a well ventilated which maintains a high concentration gradient

10

What are the exchange organs in mammals?

Lungs

11

Describe the route that air takes to get to your lungs.

Trachea splits into two bronchi
Each bronchus then branches off into bronchioles
The bronchioles go to the alveoli

12

What is the function of goblet cells?

Goblet cells secrete mucus which traps microorganisms and dust particles, stopping them from reaching the alveoli

13

What is the function of cilia?

Cilia move mucus upwards away from the alveoli towards the throat where it is swallowed to prevent lung infection

14

What is the function of elastic fibres?

Elastic fibres help the process of breathing out.
On inhalation, the fibres are stretched and then recoil during exhalation

15

What is the function of Smooth muscle?

Smooth muscle Lines the walls of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles
It allows there diameter be to be controlled so that during exercise, the tubes are wider

16

What is the function of rings of cartilage in the trachea and bronchi?

Rings of cartilage stop the trachea and bronchi collapsing when you breathe in and the pressure drops

17

Does the trachea contain cartilage, smooth muscle, elastic fibres, goblet cells and epithelium?

Cartilage: Large c shaped pieces
Smooth muscle: Yes
Elastic fibre: Yes
Goblet cells: Yes
Epithelium: Ciliated

18

Does the Bronchi contain cartilage, smooth muscle, elastic fibres, goblet cells and epithelium?

Cartilage: smaller pieces than tranchea
Smooth muscle: Yes
Elastic fibre: Yes
Goblet cells: Yes
Epithelium: Ciliated

19

Does the Larger Bronchiole contain cartilage, smooth muscle, elastic fibres, goblet cells and epithelium?

Cartilage: No
Smooth muscle: Yes
Elastic fibre: Yes
Goblet cells: Yes
Epithelium: Ciliated

20

Does the Smaller Bronchiole contain cartilage, smooth muscle, elastic fibres, goblet cells and epithelium?

Cartilage: No
Smooth muscle: Yes
Elastic fibre: Yes
Goblet cells: Yes
Epithelium: Ciliated

21

Does the Smallest Bronchiole contain cartilage, smooth muscle, elastic fibres, goblet cells and epithelium?

Cartilage: No
Smooth muscle: No
Elastic fibre: Yes
Goblet cells: No
Epithelium: No cilia

22

Does the Alveoli contain cartilage, smooth muscle, elastic fibres, goblet cells and epithelium?

Cartilage: No
Smooth muscle: No
Elastic fibre: Yes
Goblet cells: No
Epithelium: No cilia

23

Where is cartilage found in the mammalian gas exchange system?

Trachea and bronchi

24

Where is smooth muscle found in the mammalian gas exchange system?

Trachea
Bronchi
Large bronchiole
Smaller bronchiole

25

Where are elastic fibres found in the mammalian gas exchange system?

Everywhere!

26

Where are goblet cells found in the mammalian gas exchange system?

Trachea
Bronchi
Larger bronchiole

27

Where is non ciliated epithelium found in the mammalian gas exchange system?

Alveoli and smallest bronchiole

28

What is the process of inspiration?

The external intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract
The rib cage moves upwards and outwards
The volume of the thorax increases
The lung pressure decreases below atmospheric pressure
This causes air to flow into the lungs

29

What is the process of expiration?

The intercostal and diaphragm muscles relax
The rib cage moves downwards and inwards
The thorax volume decreases
The lung pressure increases above atmospheric pressure
Air is forced out of the lungs

30

Is inspiration a passive or active process?

Active process