%0 Journal Article
%A Lee, Todd C.
%A Kaouache, Mohammed
%A Grover, Steven A.
%T Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of evolocumab in the FOURIER study: a Canadian analysis
%D 2018
%R 10.9778/cmajo.20180011
%J CMAJ Open
%P E162-E167
%V 6
%N 2
%X Background: Evolocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor, has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein levels by up to 60%. Despite the absence of a reduction in overall or cardiovascular mortality in the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial, some believe that, with longer treatment, such a benefit might eventually be realized. Our aim was to estimate the potential mortality benefit over a patient's lifetime and the cost per year of life saved (YOLS) for an average Canadian with established coronary artery disease. We also sought to estimate the price threshold at which evolocumab might be considered cost-effective for secondary prevention in Canada.Methods: We calibrated the Cardio-metabolic Model, a well-validated tool for predicting cardiovascular events and life expectancy, to the reduction in nonfatal events seen in the FOURIER trial. Assuming that long-term treatment will eventually result in mortality benefits, we estimated YOLSs and cost per YOLS with evolocumab treatment plus a statin compared to a statin alone. We then estimated the annual drug costs that would provide a 50% chance of being cost-effective at willingness-to-pay values of $50 000 and $100 000.Results: In secondary prevention in patients similar to those in the FOURIER study, evolocumab treatment would save an average of 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-0.41) life-years at a cost of $101 899 (95% CI $97 325-$106 473), yielding a cost per YOLS of $299 482. We estimate that to have a 50% probability of achieving a cost per YOLS below $50 000 and $100 000 would require annual drug costs below $1200 and $2300, respectively.Interpretation: At current pricing, the use of evolocumab for secondary prevention is unlikely to be cost-effective in Canada.
%U https://www.cmajopen.ca/content/cmajo/6/2/E162.full.pdf