4.1- Communicable diseases, prevention and the immune system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.1- Communicable diseases, prevention and the immune system Deck (60)
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1

What is a communicable disease?

A disease which can be spread between organisms

2

What are three diseases which are caused by bacterium?

Tuberculosis
Ring rot
Bacterial meningitis

3

What are three diseases which are caused by viruses?

HIV
Influenza
Tobacco mosaic virus

4

What are three diseases caused by fungus?

Black sigatoka
Ringworm
Athlete's foot

5

What are two diseases caused by protoctists?

Potato / tomato late blight
Malaria

6

What is a pathogen?

An organism that causes disease

7

What are the four main types of pathogens?

Bacteria
Viruses
Fungi
Protoctista

8

What does tuberculosis affect?

Bacterium affects Animals, typically humans and cattle

9

What does bacterial meningitis affect?

Bacteria affects humans

10

What does ring rot typically affect?

Bacterium affect potatoes and tomatoes

11

What does HIV typically affect?

The virus affects humans

12

What does influenza typically affect?

The virus infect animals, including humans

13

What does tobacco mosaic virus typically affect?

The virus affect plants

14

What does black sigatoka typically affect?

The fungus affect banana plants

15

What does ringworm typically affect?

The fungus affects cattle

16

What does athlete's foot typically affect?

The fungus affects humans

17

What does potato/tomato late blight affect?

The Protoctist effect potatoes and tomatoes

18

What does malaria typically affect?

The protoctist affect animals, including humans

19

What is direct transmission?

When a disease is transmitted directly from one organism to another.

20

What three ways can a communicable disease be transmitted directly?

Droplet infection
Sexual intercourse
Touching an infected organism

21

What is indirect transmission?

When a disease is transmitted from one organism to another via an intermediate.

22

What are four examples of intermediates in indirect transmission?

Air
Water
Food
Another organism (known as a vector)

23

What are two examples of diseases that can be transmitted directly?

HIV can be transmitted by sexual intercourse
Athlete's foot can be spread via touch

24

What are two examples of diseases that can be spread by indirect transmission?

Potato / tomato late blight is spread when spores are carried between plants
Malaria is spread between humans by mosquitoes which act as vectors

25

What three factors affect the transmission of communicable diseases?

Living conditions, climate, social factors

26

Give an example of how living conditions affect the spread of disease.

In overcrowded living conditions, Tuberculosis can spread easier as people will have more contact with each other

27

Give an example of how climate can affect the spread of disease.

-Potato/tomato late blight is common during wet summers because spores need water to spread
-Malaria is common in hot countries as these are ideal conditions for mosquitos to breed

28

How can social factors affect the spread of disease?

Good healthcare and good education can help prevent the spread of HIV by educating people.

29

How does tuberculosis cause harm?

It affects many parts of the body, killing cells and tissues

30

How does bacterial meningitis cause harm?

It infects the membrane that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord (meninges)