2.3- Nucleotides and nucleic acid Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.3- Nucleotides and nucleic acid Deck (55)
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1

What three component is a nucleotide made of?

Pentose sugar
A nitrogenous base
A phosphate group

2

What is nucleotides the monomer of?

DNA and RNA

3

What are ADP and ATP used for?

To store and transport energy in cells

4

What is the sugar in a DNA nucleotide called?

Deoxyribose

5

What are the names of the four bases found in DNA?

Adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine

6

What is the definition of a purine base?

A base which contains 2 carbon-nitrogen rings joined together

7

What is the definition of a pyrimidine base?

A base which only has 1 carbon-nitrogen ring

8

Which two bases are purines?

Adenine and guanine

9

Which two bases are pyrimidines?

Cytosine and thymine

10

What is the sugar in RNA called?

Ribose

11

What are the names of the four bases found in RNA?

Adenine, uracil, cytosine and guanine

12

Is uracil a purine or pyrimidine?

Pyrimidine

13

How many polynucleotide chains is RNA made up of?

1

14

How many polynucleotide chains is DNA made up of?

2

15

I have two carbon nitrogen rings. What am I?

A purine

16

List two examples phosphorylated nucleotides?

ADP and ATP

17

What is ADP made of?

The base adenine
The sugar ribose
Two phosphate groups (adenosine diphosphate)

18

What is ATP made of?

The base adenine
The sugar ribose
3 phosphate groups (adenosine triphosphate)

19

What is the function of ATP?

It provides energy for chemical reactions in the cell

20

How is ATP synthesised?

ADP is phosphorylated with inorganic phosphate and a phosphate Bond is formed

21

How is energy released from ATP?

Energy is stored in the phosphate Bond and is released when this Bond breaks

22

How do two nucleotides join together?

A phosphodiester Bond is formed between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the sugar of another

23

Which two molecules make up the sugar phosphate backbone?

Sugars and phosphates

24

Johnny wants to eat some sugar but only has some polynucleotides. How can he turn his polynucleotides into sugar?

He could break the phosphodiester Bond and turn the polynucleotide into sugars, a phosphate group and a base

25

How do the two strands in DNA join together?

Two DNA polynucleotide strands joined together by hydrogen bonding between the bases

26

Which bases pair together?

Adenine and thymine
Cytosine and guanine

27

How many hydrogen bonds form between the bases adenine and thymine in a double helix?

Two hydrogen bonds

28

How many hydrogen bonds form between the bases cytosine and guanine in a double helix?

Three hydrogen bonds

29

True or false. DNA is made of two antiparallel strands.

True. They run in opposite directions

30

What reaction can you use to purify DNA?

A precipitation reaction- Its the one in class with the washing up liquid and the blender.