Flashcards in 3.1.5 Cloning Deck (19)
What is a clone?
A clone is an organism that is genetically identical to its parent.
What does genetically identical mean?
An organism has the same genes as another organism.
Describe what bacteria do when they reproduce.
They divide in half to make 2 identical bacteria.
What do we call the type of reproduction that bacteria do?
What is meant by asexual reproduction?
Reproduction with only one parent
Does genetic material mix during asexual reproduction?
No because there is no egg and sperm involved.
Name 3 organisms that reproduce asexually.
Describe how potato plants reproduce asexually.
The produce tubers which grow into identical potato plants
Describe how strawberry plants grow asexually
They produce long stems with tiny plantlets on the ends which grow into identical plants.
Describe how daffodils grow asexually
At the end of each growing season a new bulb is formed from which next years flower grows.
How can we make a clone of a plant?
By taking a cutting.
Describe the process of cloning a plant.
Cut a small section of a plant at the stem.
Dip the cut end in rooting powder - this encourages roots to grow.
Plant the cutting in soil.
Give 3 advantages of cloning plants through taking cuttings.
1. New plants are produced quickly.
2. The technique is cheap.
3. All plants are identical so will all have the desired characteristics.
What is the main disadvantage of cloning plants?
It reduces the variety of genes in the gene pool. This increases the chance of a disease destroying the whole species.
Some people think that cloning animals is unethical. What does this mean?
That it is wrong
Name 2 methods of cloning animals
Why do scientists clone animal cells?
To research diseases.
Why do scientists clone via tissue culturing?
to grow new skin or cartilage e.g. burn victims