Flashcards in 3.4 Communty Cohesion Deck (33):
Why have attitudes to the role of men and women changed in the UK? (7)
•During WW1 and 2 women had to take on jobs done previously by men and proved they could do them just as well.
•The development of equal rights for women in other countries (New Zealand) made it difficult to claim they weren't needed.
•The UN deceleration of Human rights and the development of the Feminist movement put forward a case for the equal rights that could not contradicted.
•The success of women as councillors and the important contribution of women to developments in health and social care showed that women were the equals of men in those areas.
•Social and industrial developments in the 1950s and 60s led for more women workers.
•Labour governments- they passed Equal Pay Act and Sex Discrimination Act.
•The work of suffragettes to gain voting rights showed men in power women were not prepared to be second class citizens.
What are the Catholic attitudes towards equal rights for women in religion? (7)
•The Catholic Church teaches that men and women should have equal rights in life and society.
•According to the ministry, women can also be ministers of holy communion, visit the sick, take funeral in certain circumstances.
•Genesis 1:17- God created men and women at the same time and in his image therefore we are equal.
•Teaching Catechism- men and women are equal and should have equal rights in life and society.
•Only men can be priests because Jesus was a man and the priest represents Jesus in the Mass.
•Only men can be priests because the apostles were all men and priests and bishops are successors of the apostles.
•1971 report- World Synod of Bishops called for women to 'participate in, and share responsibility for, the life of society and of the Church'.
What are the traditional attitudes of Protestant Christians towards equal rights for women in religion? (9) (Evangelical Protestants)
•Women and men have separate and different roles and so cannot have equal rights in religion.
•It is the role of women to bring up children and run a Christian home.
•Women should not speak in Church and must submit to their husbands.
•It is the role of men to provide for the family and to lead the family in religion.
•Men must love their wives for themselves, but only men can be Church leaders and teachers.
•St. Paul uses the story of Adam and Eve in Genesis to show that men have been given more rights by God because Adam was created first.
•Although Jesus had women followers, he chose men as his twelve apostles.
•Tradition of the Church from the beginning that only men should have leadership rights in the Church.
•The teaching of the New Testament (the final word of God)- St. Paul teaches that women should not speak or teach in Church.
What are the modern attitudes of Protestant Christians towards equal rights for women in religion? (5)
•Many Protestant Churches now accept women and men having equal rights.
•In the creation story of Genesis 1, God created male and female at the same time in his image and therefore of equal status.
•There is evidence from the Gospels that Jesus treated women as his equals.
•In some of his letters, Paul teaches that men and women are equal in Christ.
•There is some evidence of women priests in the early Church.
What is the nature of the UK as a multi-ethnic society? (4)
•The UK has always been a mixed society.
•The UK believed in human freedom and offered asylum to those suffering persecution.
•In the 19th century the UK built an empire around the world. In exchange for being ruled by Britain, citizens of the empire were allowed to settle in the UK.
•Slaves who set foot on Britain soil immediately became free, as a a result, small black communities grew in Bristol, Liverpool and Cardiff.
What are the problems of discrimination and racism (4)
•Racially prejudiced employers will not give jobs to certain ethnic group and religiously prejudiced employers will not give jobs to certain religious groups.
•Prejudiced landlords are likely to refuse accommodation to certain ethnic groups or religions.
•If teachers are prejudiced against certain groups they will discriminate against them in their teachings and so they don't receive the results they are capable of.
•Prejudiced police officers could discriminate against people by stopping them when they have no reason to and they could change the way they treat evidence.
What are the effects of discrimination and racism (6)
•If certain groups feel they are being treated unfairly by society they will begin to feel alienated and so work against that society and rebel and protest.
•Some politicians believe that young black people turn to crime because they feel they will not get a good well-paid job due to racism and discrimination resulting in a an increase in crime.
•Some politicians believe that some people have been turning to extreme Islamic groups because they feel they have no chance of success in a prejudiced British society (can lead to terror acts).
•Can lead to a rise in groups like the BNP which stir up hatred of different ethnic groups leading to violence.
•Elections could be biased and unfair.
•Services could be restricted to certain people.
What are the benefits of living in a multi-faith society? (4)
•Less likely to be a chance of war because people of different ethnic groups and nationalities will get to know and like each other.
•More progress would be made in a multi-faith society because new people will bring in new ideas and new ways of doing things.
•Life is more interesting with a much greater variety of food, music, fashion and entertainment.
•A multi-ethnic society will help people to live and work in a world of multi-national companies and economic independence between all nations.
What has the government done to encourage community cohesion? (10)
•Financially supporting groups that are working for community cohesion.
•Passing the Race Relation Act making it unlawful to discriminate against anyone because of race, colour, nationality or to stir up racial hatred.
•Making community cohesion as part of the national curriculum at school.
•Passing the Crime and Disorder Act- it allows a higher sentence if there is evidence of racial hostility.
•Funding research to find ways to achieve community cohesion.
•Appointing ethnic minorities to top jobs.
•Passing the Religion and Religious Hatred Act making it unlawful to discriminate against anyone because of race, colour, nationality, ethnicity or national origin using threatening/abusive/insulting words in public that could stir up racial hatred; publish anything likely to stir up racial hatred.
•Establishing the Equality and Human Rights Commission- it champions human rights and equality for all.
•All political parties oppose racism.
•Passing the Racial and Religious Hatred Act- it makes it an offence to use words or behaviour that would incite people because of their religious beliefs. It's
Why is community cohesion important for multi-ethnic and multi-faith societies? (4)
•The 7th July 2005 London bombers were British citizens who had lost their sense of allegiance to Britain.
•Lack of community cohesion makes it impossible for people to co-operate in the way modern cilivised living needs.
•In countries without community cohesion such as Iraq, violence becomes their way of life.
•Without community cohesion different groups have different ideas as to how society should be like and this could lead to violence.
Why should Catholics promote (bring about) racial harmony? (9)
•Parable of the Good Samaritan- an example of caring for a person from a different race.
•St Peter had a vision from God telling him not to discriminate because God has no favourite amongst races.
•St Paul taught that all races are equal in Christ since God created all races in his image.
•The Catholic Church is dedicated to fighting racism in all forms as seen in the teachings of the Catechism.
•The Catholic Church has members from all races, over 30% of the world are Christian and 70% of Christians are non-white, non-European.
•Simon of Cyrene was black and helped Jesus carry the cross.
•Jesus treated a Samaritan woman as his equal.
•Catholic cardinals comes from all races and the Church fights against racism.
•Many Christian groups and individuals work for racial harmony e.g. CARJ (Catholic Association for Racial Justice).
How have Catholic Churches help asylum seekers and immigrant workers? (6)
•Some Parishes provide Masses in other languages so that immigrant workers can maintain their faith and worship.
•Westminster Cathedral has an annual Migrants Mass.
•Parishes will a lot of immigrants have set up legal advice clinics to help immigrants cope with the legal issues of settling in the UK.
•The Catholic Church in the UK set up the office for Refugee policy (ORP) which keeps a watch on what is happening and prepare reports on immigration issues for the Bishops to help them develop policy and respond to debates.
•2008 Catholic Bishop's Conference- put forward ways that the parishes could help loca migrants through e.g. leaflets on healthcare, English classes, collections for refugees.
•Parishes help to make the image of immigrants seem better- they are not here to take resources and take up most low paid unwanted jobs.
•They give them items for their homes.
Why have the Catholic Church help asylum seekers and migrant workers? (6)
•Following the golden rule.
•Jesus himself was a refugee and asylum seeker when the holy family fled to Egypt to avoid Herod's slaughter of the innocents.
•It is the teaching of Jesus in the parable of the sheep and goat and the parable of the good samaritan to help those who need help and who are less fortunate.
•The Catholic Church teaches that no one should be oppressed and that Christians should seek justice for the oppressed.
•Love for neighbours.
•Bible teaches that God is a God of justice who requires his followers to behave justly and seek justice for everyone.
What are the benefits to living in a multi-faith society? (5)
•People can learn about other religions and this can help them see what religions have in common.
•People from different religions may practice their religion more seriously and this may make people think more about their own religion.
•People are more likely to become understanding and respectful about each other's religion.
•It may make some people think about religions as they come across religious ideas they have never thought about.
•It stops religious conflicts as religious toleration and understanding will exist.
What are the Catholic attitudes towards other religions? (4)
•Believe that non-Christian religions are search for God and have some truth but only Christianity has the whole truth. (This is the teaching of the Church in the Catechism.)
•They believe that other religions should be respected and that their followers may get to heaven.
•Christians have a duty to try to put across the gospel message to people of other religions because they have the whole truth- it is the teaching of the Church, Jesus is the Son of God (he shows the true nature of God).
•The Bible teaches that Christianity reveals the full truth about God.
What are the Evangelical Protestants attitudes towards other religions? (5)
•They believe Christianity is the only true religion and so they must try to convert everyone to Christianity.
•They believe that sayings of Jesus such as 'I am the way of truth and life', no one comes to their father but through me' means only Christians will go to heaven.
•They think that the command of Jesus for people to love their neighbours means that they will want their neighbour to go to heaven and so will want to convert them.
•The believe that the final words of Jesus to his followers, 'therefore go and make disciples of all nations', means everyone must be converted to Christianity.
•Members of other religions must be respected, but everyone has a right to convert others.
What are the Liberal Protestant Christians attitudes towards other religions (6)
•They believe that all religions are equal and are just different ways of fining God.
•They believe that Christians should respect other religions and work with the to make Britain a more spiritual and holy country.
•They don't believe the Bible is the word of God.
•They see Muslims, Jews, Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists living good and holy lives in the UK.
•God is a force like gravity which can be discovered in different ways.
•Words of Jesus- 'in my father's house there are many rooms' there is room in heaven for all.
What are the issues raised for religion by a multi-faith society? (Conversion) (5)
•Conversion is an issue because the teachings to religions and the fact of multi-faith society conflict with each other.
•Many religious people would say that trying to convert followers of other religions when living in a multi-faith society is a type of prejudice and discrimination.
•It can lead to arguments and even violence in a multi-faith society when people are told their religion is wrong.
•Many people would say it is impossible to regard all other religions as wrong unless you have studied all of them and compared them to decide which is true.
•Some believe that the only way for the followers of other religion to get to heaven is for them to be converted.
What are the issues raised for religion by a multi-faith society? (Bringing up children) (5)
•A multi-faith society requires everyone (including children) to have religious freedom and to be able to choose what religion to follow or reject and to learn about different religions in society.
•Most religions encourage parents to ensure their children are brought up in their religion and becomes members of it.
•Most religions teach that only those who follow their religion will have a good life, so religious parents may worry that they won't see their children after death unless their stay in their religion.
•Social and peer pressure compel parents to exert pressure on their children to remain in the faith to preserve family and culture traditions.
•Children educated in state school experience the secular nature of British life and are tempted away from religious lifestyles.
What are the issues raised for religion by a multi-faith society? (Inter-faith marriage) (4)
•Often there can be no religious wedding ceremony as both couples must be members of the same religion for a religious wedding ceremony.
•There is a question of which religion the children of the marriage will be brought up in.
•There is also the problem of what will happen after death and if the couple have to be buried in separate parts of the cemetery according to their religion.
•For the parents and relatives of the couple there is often the feeling that they have betrayed their roots and family by falling in love with someone from a different religion.
•Unless these issues are dealt with then religion itself can be working against community cohesion and promote conflict and has.
What are the ways in which religions work to promote community cohesion in the UK (Interfaith marriage) (2)
•Many protestant Christian Churches and Liberal or Reform Jewish synagogues have developed special wedding services for mixed faith couple.
•Some religious leaders have set up a website to offer help and advice to couples from different religions.
What are the ways in which religions work to promote community cohesion in the UK (Bringing up children) (2)
•Some Protestant Christian Churches and Liberal or Reform Jewish Synagogues encourage mixed parents to bring up their children in both religions.
•Leaders from the Church of England, Hindu, Sikh, Catholic, Christians, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist faiths have all agreed to teach the main religions practiced in the UK in their schools.
What are the ways in which religions work to promote community cohesion in the UK (Working in special groups) (3)
•There are national groups such as the Inter Faith Network for the UK.
•There are also groups in most towns and cities bringing together the different religious groups in an area.
•There are individual places of worship which work together.
What are the ways in which religions work together to promote community cohesion in the UK? (Discovering similarities between different faiths) (1)
•Different religions are beginning to work together to discover what is the same in their religion and from this work out ways of living together without trying to convert each other.
How have attitudes changed towards the roles of men and women in the UK? (3)
•Women have always earned their own living and been allowed to own property, in the past.
•After 1850, women it was accepted that women were to stay at home and look after children.
•Before 1850, 50% of women had jobs but in 1900 it was 15%.
Why attitudes changed towards the roles of men and women in the UK? (5)
•In the late 19th and early 20th century women demanded to be treated as equals.
•1882- Married Women's Property Act.
•1892- Local Government Act- women could become councillors.
•1918- Representation of the People Act women could vote at 30 and men at 21.
•1928- Electoral Reform Act- equal voting rights for men and women. It's
What are the reasons against living in a multi-ethnic society (3)?
•Different ethnic groups living in one society are likely to come into conflict with each other if they disagree with each other.
•Multi-ethnic societies can lead to loss of culture of the original group (e.g. the effect of non-Cornish ethnic groups living in Cornwall has led to the disappearance of the Cornish language).
•If every ethnic group had its own country, there would be no conflict.
What are the reasons against religion/Christianity being the best way to bring about racial harmony (3)?
•Some Christian groups work against racial harmony, e.g. Ku Klux Klan.
•Politics is a better way of bringing racial harmony about, e.g. the US had a black president, but the Catholic Church does not have a black pope.
•Not everyone is religious and so laws which give everyone equal rights are more likely to bring about racial harmony.
What are the reasons against the Catholic Church helping asylum seekers and immigrant workers (3)?
•The more help Catholics give, the more asylum seekers and immigrant workers will arrive in the UK which is already full.
•It is better to give people help in their own countries through CAFOD.
•The Church should be focusing on stopping the wars that force people to become asylum seekers.
What are the reasons for the idea that the Church is not doing enough to help asylum seekers and immigrant workers (3)?
•Not all Parishes are providing help.
•Not all Parishes take notice of what ORP (office for refugee policy- represents the bishops on immigration issues national and internationally) says.
•Some Catholics in some Parishes are still racists.
What are the reasons against living in a multi-faith society (4)?
•They encourage children to look at other religions, and children might desert their parents religion.
•Interfaith marriages can cause problems for religious people.
•They can make it difficult to follow a particular religion because society cannot be organised for every religions' different rules.
•They can make it difficult for believers to spread their faith because people from other religions might object to them saying that their religion is the best one.
What are the arguments against children being brought up in one faith only (3)?
•It is a human right to have freedom of religion and so children need to know about different religions in order to choose which one to follow.
•A multi-faith society needs its members to respect all religions and children need to learn about other religions if they are to respect the followers of that religion.
•Children who are brought up knowing only one religion may not really believe it because they have not compared it with anything else, so they cannot know that it is the best religion.