Flashcards in 3.3 Marriage And Family Life Deck (39):
How have attitudes to marriage, divorce and homosexuality changed? (8)
•It is accepted now that couples will have premarital sex.
•Cohabitation is common in society.
•Most people who marry are now living with their partners first.
•People marry much later in life (31.8 for men and 29.7 for women).
•Most marriages happen away from Church.
•Divorce is accepted as a normal part of life.
•There are more single parent families.
•There are more reconstituted families (remarried).
•Homosexuality is accepted and made legal through the Civil Partnership Act and same sex marriage.
What are the reasons for changes of attitudes to marriage, divorce and homosexuality? (7)
•There is a wider use of artificial contraception.
•There are fewer Church going Christians- a secular society.
•Influence of the media- due to celebrity lifestyles.
•Divorce is cheaper and easier legally.
•Women are no longer expected to stay at home and are financially independent.
•There are more concerning problems in society.
•Human rights have changed.
In the UK in the 1960s it was expected that... (5)
•Young people would not have sex until marriage.
•Most people were married in Church by the age of 25.
•Most marriages lasted for life.
•Most families were nuclear families (a husband, wife and children).
•Homosexuals would not be seen in public as it was a criminal offence.
What are the Christian attitudes towards sex outside of marriage? (4)
•Christianity teaches that sex was given to humans by God to bond a married couple together.
•The Bible says that fornication (pre-martial sex and promiscuity) is sinful.
•The Catechism of the Church teaches that pre-martial sex is wrong and Catholics are encouraged to follow the teachings of the Church.
•All Christians are against adultery as it breaks the wedding vows to be faithful to each other, it is condemned in the Ten Commandments and condemned by Jesus in the Gospels.
What are the purposes of a Catholic marriage? (5)
•So that a couple can have a long-life relationship of love and faithfulness.
•So that a couple can have the support and comfort of each other.
•For the procreation of children.
•For the bringing up of a Christian family.
•Procreation is one of the seven sacraments of marriage and is a sign of grace and strength given through God.
How is the purpose of a Catholic marriage shown during the wedding ceremony? (4)
•The exchange of vows committing the couple to a lifetime marriage and restricted sex to each other.
•The exchange of rings symbolise the unending nature of marriage.
•The priest's introduction to the service emphasises the fact that marriage is a special sacrament which cannot be broken.
•Readings from the Bible and then a Sermon given by the priest presents the nature of a Christian marriage as a long-life relationship of love and faithfulness.
How is the couple having support and comfort of each other shown in a Catholic marriage? (4)
•The priest asking if the couple will honor and love each other as a married couple for the rest of their lives.
•The marriage vows and exchange of rings.
•The prayer and nuptial mass give the couple God's grace and strength to comfort and support each other.
•The readings and homily are also likely to refer to the need for support and comfort
How is the procreation of children shown in a Catholic marriage? (2)
•The priest asking the couple if they will accept children from God lovingly and bring them up according to the law of Christ and his Church.
•The readings, homily and prayers all refer to the acceptance of children as an essential feature of a Catholic marriage.
How is the bringing up of a Christian family shown in a Catholic marriage? (2)
•The preparation course is a discussion about how the couple should bring up their children (baptism, first confession, communion, confirmation, Catholic schools connected with the parish).
•The priest asking the couple if they will accept children from God lovingly and bringing them up according to the law of Christ and his Church.
What are the Catholic attitudes to divorce? (4)
•Does not allow religious divorce or remarriage.
•Marriage is a sacrament made before God, the only way to dissolve a marriage is through death or annulment.
•The Catholic Church allows the legal separation of spouses if they find it impossible to live together and even a civil divorce if it will ensure the proper care of children and the safety and security of the married partner.
•The Church does allow annulment if it can be proven the marriage was never consummated (or it wasn't a true Christian marriage).
Why do Catholics have these attitudes to re-marriage and divorce? (4)
•Jesus taught that divorce is wrong in Mark's Gospel and Christians follow the teachings of Jesus.
•The couple have made a covenant with God in the sacrament of marriage which cannot be broken by earthly powers.
•The Church teaches very clearly in the Catechism that a marriage can't be dissolved and so religious divorce is impossible.
•As there cannot be a divorce, there cannot be re-marriage as that would be the same as committing bigamy and adultery.
What are the non-Catholic Christian attitudes towards divorce? (5)
•Most Churches say divorce is wrong but allows it if the marriage has broken down and the effect of the couple not divorcing be a greater evil than the evil of divorcing itself.
•Most Churches allow divorced people to re-marry but require them to talk to the priest/minister about why their first marriage failed.
•Jesus allowed divorce in Mathew 19:9 for a partner's adultery.
•Some Churches believe it is better to divorce than to live in hatred and quarrel all the time.
•If Christians repent and confess their sins, they can be forgiven. This means a couple should have a second chance at marriage if they are keen to make it work this time.
Why do non-Catholic Christians allow divorce? (4)
•Jesus allowed divorce in Mathew for a partner's adultery, therefore Jesus showed that divorce can happen if the reasons are sufficiently severe.
•They believe that there are certain situations where Christians must choose 'the lesser of the two evils' where if the marriage has broken down then the effects of staying together would be greater than a divorce.
•Christians are allowed forgiveness and a new chance if they confess their sin and truly repent, this should be applied to divorce and remarriage.
•It is the teaching of theses Churches that it is better to divorce than to live in quarrel and hatred all the time.
Why is family life important for Catholics? (7)
•One of the main purposes of a Catholic marriage is to have children.
•Catholicism teaches that family was created by God as the basic unit of society as the only place in which children should be brought up.
•Catholic teaching on divorce makes it clear that Catholic parents should stay together wherever possible and bring up their children together as family is important.
•The family is the place where children learn the difference between right and wrong and without this there would be more evil in the world.
•Christian children are expected to care for their parents where they can no longer care for themselves.
•Having a family is an expected outcome to Catholic marriage.
•Christian family is more important than human family e.g. monks, nuns and Jesus left their family for God.
How have Catholic parishes helped with the upbringing of children? (4)
•Most parishes have a local Catholic school connected to them
•Parishes run classes to prepare children for their first communion.
•Some parishes run children's liturgies to help young children understand the Church and the Mass.
•Some parishes also run youth clubs and youth activities so that children are kept off the streets and away from bad influences.
How have Catholic parishes helped to keep families together? (5)
•During Mass the priest may remind parents of the vows they made in their marriage ceremony and also of their reasons not to divorce.
•The parish priest is always available to give help and advice to couple having family problems.
•The Church has provided a package welcoming everyone to the parish to help explore new ways to be more family friendly.
•Many Parishes provide financial support if for example, the family wage earner is ill or made redundant.
•The Church has produced a series of leaflets to help Parishes to meet and understand the needs of families.
What are the Catholic attitudes to homosexuality? (7)
•Being a homosexual is not a sin but that homosexual relationships are a sin.
•It is the tradition of the Church that any sexual activity should have the possibility of creating children.
•The Church condemns all forms of homophobia. It believes it is sinful to harass or attack homosexuals as they believe people cannot help their sexuality.
•The Bible condemns homosexual activity.
•The Bible teaches that everyone has human dignity.
•It is the teaching of the Magesterium found in the Catechism that Catholics should follow.
•It is the tradition of the Church that sexual activity should be procreative as well as unitive and it is not possible for homosexuals to have procreative sex.
What are the Evangelical attitudes to homosexuality? (2)
•Many believe homosexuality is a sin and that there should be no homosexual Christians.
•They hold special prayers to give power to homosexuals to be able to change their sexuality.
Why do Evangelical Christians believe homosexuality is a sin? (4)
•The Bible is the direct word of God and as the Bible condemns homosexuality in some of the Old and New Testaments.
•The salvation of Christ can remove all sins, including homosexuality.
•All Churches have taught it, even though some now say homosexuality is acceptable.
•However, they say that they would call on Churches to welcome homosexuals as they would any other person and are against homophobia.
What are the Liberal Protestants attitude towards homosexuality? (4)
•Homosexuals are welcomed into the Church.
•Priests/Ministers can be homosexual but must not take part in homosexual sex.
•It is not equal in marriage.
•Some are willing to bless civil partners.
Why do Liberal Protestants hold such attitude towards homosexuals? (4)
•The teachings of the Bible need re-interpreting in the light of modern knowledge and that anti-homosexual texts in the Bible are a reflection of the Jewish culture at the time.
•The major Christian belief in love and acceptance means that homosexuals must be accepted.
•Inspiration comes from the Holy Spirit as well as the Bible and if Christians can feel the Spirit approves of homosexuality, it can't be denied.
•Christians should be open and honest and refusing the right to gay Christians encourages them to be dishonest and hypocritical about their nature and life.
What are the reasons as to why people control the number of children they have and use contraception? (4)
•For health of the mother (to prevent death in childbirth and STIs).
•To provide more food for the family unit.
•To provide a better standard of living for the family unit.
•90% of people in the UK of childbearing age use some form of contraception.
What are the Catholic attitudes to contraception? (8)
•The Catholic Church teaches that sexual intercourse is a gift from God as a source of joy and pleasure to married couple as well as a means of creating of a family.
•Pope Pius XI condemned all forms of contraception as they are going against God's intentions.
•In 1951, Pope Pius XII said that Catholics could use natural methods of contraception as they are natural and part of God's creation.
•Artificial methods of birth control separate the unitive and creative aspects of sex, which is not what God intended.
•Responsible parenthood involves deciding on the number of children to have and when to have them through family planning.
•The Catholic Church teaches that artificial methods of contraception are against God's intentions.
•Some contraceptives are abortifacients.
•The Catholic Church regards contraception as a major cause of promiscuity, broken families, divorces and STIs.
What are the non-Catholic Christian attitudes towards contraception? (6)
They believe that...
•All forms of contraception are permissible as long as they are used to restrict the size of family and not simply to stop having children all together.
•Christianity is about love and justice and contraception improve's women's health and raises the standard of living of children as families are smaller.
•God created sex for enjoyment and to create the bond of marriage- in marriage contraception allows the roles of sex to be separated from making children which is not against God's will.
•It is better to combat AIDS/HIV by using condoms than by expecting everyone to follow Christian rules about sex and marriage.
•There is nothing in the Bible that forbids contraception.
•In 1930, the Lambeth Conference for Anglicans declared it legitimate for Christians to use contraception for limiting family size.
How have attitudes to homosexuality changed in the UK? (6)
•Attitudes in terms of law have changed- 1967 Act and subsequent reform.
•Civil Partnerships Act in 2004- same sex couples register and receive the same legal rights as opposite sex couples.
•It is easier to be openly homosexual and society is more accepting and understanding.
•Medical research as shown homosexuality is likely to be genetic- 5% of the population is estimated to be homosexual.
•Openness of gay celebrities increases acceptance.
•The work of groups like Stonewall have changed attitudes.
Why has society changed its attitudes to cohabitation and marriage? (4)
•The increased availability of effective contraception made it safer to have sex without becoming pregnant.
•Christianity lost its influence as fewer people went to Church and were not encouraged to refrain from sex until marriage.
•The increase in media publicity of celebrities made cohabitation acceptable as it became more popular.
•Television and films show sexual relationships outside of marriage as the norm.
Why has society changed its attitudes to divorce? (4)
•In 1969, new laws made divorce cheaper and easier to obtain.
•Expectations of what marriage should be like have changed e.g. increased equality of women mean women are no longer prepared to be mistreated.
•Many women are now financially independent.
•Demographic changes- there is a change in how long people are married- most divorces occur after ten years of marriage.
Why has society changed its attitudes to family life? (4)
•Increase in partners not married due to more cohabiting couples.
•Increase in divorce leads to more re-marriage.
•The extended family is more popular as mothers are in paid employment and use grandparents or retired relatives to bring children up.
•There are more single parent families due to divorce.
What are the reasons for sex before marriage? (3)
•Sex is a natural result of two people being in love, there is no reason for them to wait until marriage.
•Modern contraception means a couple can have sex without the risk of pregnancy, so unwanted children are not likely to result from sex before marriage.
•Sex before marriage is now accepted by society and very few thinks its wrong, e.g. celebrities who have children together without being married.
What are the Christians reasons for marriage (4)?
•Marriage is God's gift (a sacrament for Catholics), the way God says humans should have sex and bring up a family.
•The Bible teaches that sex should only take place in marriage and that marriage is necessary for the upbringing of a Christian family.
•The Church teaches that marriage is the bases of society and that living together without marriage is wrong.
•Statistics show that a married couple are more likely to stay together and that their children have a more stable and happy life.
What are the reasons for cohabitation (4)?
•Couples who live together can be as happy and committed as a married couple.
•You cannot promise to stay with someone until death if you don't know what it will be like to live with them.
•Living together brings all commitment and joy of marriage without the legal complications.
•Weddings are expensive and living together allows a couple to spend money on the home, children, etc.
What are the reasons against a Catholic wedding service making a marriage last and/or successful (3)?
•Statistics show that couples who have had a Catholic wedding are just as likely to divorce as those who marry in a registrar office.
•How much a couple love each other is more important than what type of a wedding ceremony they have,
•Couples are not likely to think of their wedding service when they are having a major argument.
What are the arguments against family life being more important for religious than non-religious people? (4)
•Many non-religious people see their family as being the most important thing in their life whereas many religious people see their religion as being more important.
•Most non-religious people have just as good as a family life as religious people.
•Non-religious people can respect their family more as they don't have to force them to try to be religious.
•Religion cannot make a difference as to how much parents love their children, and children love their parents.
What are the reasons for Catholic Parishes not doing enough to help with the upbringing of children? (3)
•Not all parishes have children's liturgies.
•Not all parishes run youth activities.
•Some parishes make children and young people feel unwanted because they are thought to disturb the seriousness of worship.
What are the reasons against the idea that Catholic parishes help to keep families together? (3)
•Statistics show that Catholic families are just as likely to break up as other families.
•Not all parishes provide the support outlined.
•Some parishes would not provide support to families who have lapsed from their faith or who were having problems over issues such as needing infertility treatment which is banned by the Church.
What are the arguments for giving equal rights to homosexuals? (3)
•British laws give homosexuals equal rights and equal rights are part of the basic human rights.
•Medical research shows that homosexuality is probably genetic and therefore natural.
•Many Liberal Protestant Christians believe that the major Christians belief in love and acceptance means that homosexuals must be given equal rights.
What are the arguments against giving equal rights to homosexuals? (3)
•The Bible condemns homosexual sexual activity.
•Tradition of the Church for sexual activity to have the possibility to create children.
•The Church has always taught that homosexuality is wrong.
What are the reasons for civil partnerships (3)?
•They allow homosexual couples to commit themselves to each other and encourage stable sexual relationships.
•They allow homosexual couples to share their belongings, pensions, etc. just in the same way as heterosexual couples.
•They are a way of encouraging the Christian virtues of love and faithfulness among homosexuals.