Flashcards in 3.2 Matters Of Life And Death Deck (32):
Why do Catholics believe in life after death? (10)
•God will reward the good and punish the bad.
•Jesus rose from the dead- all four Gospels state that Jesus died on the cross and was buried on a Friday and on Saturday some female disciples found the tomb empty.
•There are lots of mentions about Jesus' resurrection in the New Testament.
•St. Paul in the Bible says people will have a resurrection.
•God will give people a spiritual resurrection body.
•The creeds of the Church teach that Jesus rose from the dead.
•The Catechism teaches life after death.
•The Magisterium supports the idea of life after death.
•Immortality of the soul- after death the soul goes to be with God.
•Life after death gives meaning and purpose- good rewarded and evil punished.
How are Catholic lives affected about beliefs of life after death? (7)
•Catholics will be judged after death by God- good will go to heaven.
•Living a good Catholic life- following teachings, scriptures, traditions, praying, going to Church.
•Catholics must love their neighbour- be good to others, love God- attend mass every Sunday (Jesus' 2 commandements).
•Catholics must follow the teachings of Jesus- looking after people (e.g. Parable of the Sheep and Goats, feeding hungry, clothing the naked, looking after strangers, visiting the sick, being a Good Samaritan).
•Catholics should try to support charities like CAFOD.
•Life after death gives lives meaning and purpose.
•Try to avoid sinning in order to go to heaven.
What are the non-religious reasons for believing in life after death? (5)
•The paranormal- things that move without being touched e.g. Ghosts, telekinesis.
•Near death experience- people declared clinically dead for some time e.g. Cardiac arrest.
•Evidence of spirit world- ghosts and ouija boards give evidence of spirits or souls.
•Mediums- people who claim they have the gift of connecting to the spirit world.
•Evidence for reincarnation- world religions like Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism believe life after death involves being reborn into another body.
What is the Catholic Church's response to non-religious reasons for believing in life after death? (2)
•All evidence of mediums, ghosts are rejected as superstitions.
•Reincarnation is rejected.
Why do some people not believe in life after death? (8)
•Some people believe if there is no God there is nothing non-material, everything must exist in a physical way. (There is no heaven or hell then).
•Different religions have different ideas about life after death resulting in inconsistent instructions.
(E.g. Buddhists believe in reincarnation and Christianity believe in judgement).
•The paranormal has been criticised by scientists as there is no evidence.
•Scientists say the mind develops as the brain grows; the mind cannot exist without the body. This proves that the mind or soul cannot live on after death.
•Space exploration has not found heaven- there is nowhere for life after death.
•A non-believer would not know which holy book containing evidence should be be believed.
•We can only recognise people by the way they look- souls cannot be recognised.
•People have been brought up not to believe in life after death due to non-religious parents.
When did the abortion act become legal in Britain?
What must two doctors agree on for an abortion to occur? (4)
•The mother's life is at risk.
•There is a risk of injury to the mother's physical or mental health.
•There is a risk that another child would risk the mental or physical health of an existing child.
•There is a substantial risk the baby is born handicapped.
What is the current abortion act (1990)? (3)
•After 24 weeks abortions can not take place.
However it can take place after 24 weeks due to...
•Mother's life being in danger.
•The baby may be born with severe mental or physical abnormalities.
Why is abortion so controversial? (7)
Due to different beliefs...
•A baby cannot be considered a separate life until it can live outside the womb.
•Non- religious people believe women should have the rights to do what she wants with her own body.
•Some may argue that pregnancy can be unwanted at times- the woman may be unable to provide for her child and herself.
•There many religions and anti abortion groups that believe life begins at conception.
•Religious people believe that an unborn child has
equal rights to those of the mother's.
•Some believe babies survive between 22-24 weeks and the limit should be 18-20 weeks.
•There are arguments whether medical staff should carry out abortions which involve acting against their conscience.
What is the Catholic attitude to abortion? (8)
•All direct abortion is wrong (based on scripture, apostolic tradition and the Magisterium).
•Life begins at the moment of conception.
•New life has rights.
•Life is holy and belongs to God.
•The Ten Commandments teach it is wrong to take life.
•Every person has a natural 'right to life'.
•The Church points to evidence that women that have abortions can suffer from traumas and mental illnesses.
•Adoption is a better solution.
What is the Doctrine of double effect? (2)
•The first effect is to save the mother's life.
•The second (double) effect is to end the life of a foetus.
(E.g. A mother who has cancer and must have chemotherapy that would kill the foetus).
What are the attitudes to abortion of Evangelical Protestants?
•The same as Catholics.
What does the law say about euthanasia? (UK law)
•Assisted suicide, voluntary euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia are all illegal and can lead to charge of murder.
What are the exceptions to the law of euthanasia? (3)
•Nutrition and hydration can be removed for terminally ill people and patients with no chance of survival.
•Ensuring a peaceful death isn't murder (e.g. giving a high dose of painkillers).
•This is known as passive euthanasia.
Why do people think euthanasia should stay illegal? (4)
•There is doubt to what the patient really wants (in the case of involuntary-euthanasia especially).
•A cure may be found for the terminal disease.
•Doctors save lives not end them.
•People may change their minds and then it may be too late to do so.
Why do people think euthanasia should made be legal? (5)
•Advances in medicine kept people alive people who would have previously have died making their quality of life poor.
•Doctors and relatives should have the right to give patients the right to a painless death.
•The NHS can't afford to keep people alive on such life support machine.
•Judges can order doctors to stop treatment.
•People feel that it is a basic human right to control when you should end your life.
What is the Catholic attitude for euthanasia? (4)
Passive euthanasia is not condemned, including...
•Switching off of a life support machine (God has decided already what will happen).
•Giving dying people painkillers- it is a merciful act.
•Attitudes are similar to British laws.
•Catholics accept that modern medicine is evolving fast.
What are non-Catholic Christian attitudes for euthanasia? (3)
•The teaching of Jesus- to love your neighbour.
•Helping people in trouble could be used to justify assisted suicide and living wills give people a chance to be in control of what doctors are doing to them, this is a basic human right.
•Modern medicine means we can no longer be sure what God's wishes are.
Why are Catholics against euthanasia? (3)
•The sanctity of life- life is created and sacred to God.
•The Bible condemns humans putting themselves on the same level as God.
•Murder is forbidden in the Ten Commandments.
What are non-Catholic Christian attitudes against euthanasia? (5)
Similar to Catholic ones...
•Any type of euthanasia even passive euthanasia is wrong.
•The Bible bans suicide, the Bible is interpreted literally.
•Life cannot be ended by humans, only by God.
•Murder is banned in the Ten Commandments.
•Life is created by God, so is sacred to God.
What are arguments that the media should not be free to criticise what religions say about life and death? (4)
•Criticising religions on life and death is a way of creating religious hatred.
•If you criticise religious leaders like the Pope or the Archbishop of Canterbury it is like criticising God and is therefore blasphemy.
•Some religions believe their attitude is based on what God says, so criticising God is beyond criticism.
•Criticising religious attitudes can cause conflicts, e.g. a Danish newspaper drew a cartoon picture of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) in 2006 causing riots in many different countries.
What are arguments that the media should be free to criticise what religions say about life and death? (7)
•Societies with democracy say they believe in freedom of expression.
•People can make choices as to what they want to believe in.
•If the media has freedom of expression, they must be free to criticise religious attitudes to matters of life and death.
•If religious leaders can criticise others, they should be prepared to be criticised.
•In a multi-faith and multi-cultural society there must be freedom of belief and expression.
•Life and death issues are so important we need to know how to deal with them.
•Society needs freedom of expression to progress (allowing people to question ideas).
What are the types of countries in terms of wealth? (3)
•MEDC (More economically developed countries) e.g. Britain.
•EDC (Economically developed countries) e.g. México, Russia, India, China, Indonesia.
•LEDC (Less economically developed countries). e.g. Sierra Leon, Gambia.
What are the causes of world poverty? (8)
•Lack of education.
•International money- taking advantage of the exchange rate.
How do natural disasters cause world poverty? (2)
•Homes, hospitals, workplaces, schools, farmland, other public services and infrastructure is destroyed.
•People are limited to occupations, education, healthcare and accommodation.
How does debt cause world poverty? (3)
•LEDCs have to borrow money.
•Banks charge interest- it is impossible to payback the money.
•Poor countries don't have enough money to improve society.
How do wars cause world poverty? (5)
•There are civil wars.
•There are wars between countries.
•There are refugees- there is strain on a poor country's resources.
•Money goes towards armed forces.
•Soldiers are not economically active.
How does unfair trade cause world poverty? (3)
•Trade is dominated by rich countries.
•Farmers can't sell their crops in poor countries.
•There is a lack of food due to demand for tobacco etc.
How does disease cause world poverty? (4)
•Economically active people are lost to disease.
•Lack of education.
•People are not trained for more skilful jobs.
•There's no clean water.
What is CAFOD? (3)
•Catholic Fund for Overseas Development.
•The Catholic agency that works to help the poor.
•It aims to end world poverty.
What are four parts of CAFOD's work? (4)
•Development programmes- long term development so LEDCs can become self supporting and have the opportunities to become MEDCs.
•Supporting disasters and emergencies- natural disasters and refugees.
•Raising awareness- educating people and Churches how Catholics can help less developed countries.
•Speaking out on behalf of poor communities to bring social justice- campaigning to cancel debt of LEDCs.