Flashcards in 3.4 Racial and Ethnic Politics Deck (16):
In what 4 states do minorities make up the majority of the state's population?
By 2025 which communities will make up over a quarter of the US population
Hispanic and Asian
What is affirmative action?
A programme that entails giving the members of a previously disadvantaged minority group a head start in such areas as higher education and employment
What started affirmative action in the US?
March 1961 President Kennedy created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to ensure that hiring and employment practises would be free from racial bias
Landmark affirmative action cases
1978 Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
2003 Gratz v. Bollinger
2013 Fisher v. University of Texas
Arguments for affirmative action
1. Leads to greater levels of diversity
2. Rights previous wrongs
3. Opens up areas of education and employment that minorities would otherwise not have considered
4. Creates diverse student body that promotors racial tolerance
5. Most effective way of delivering equality of opportunity
Between 1960 and 1995 what was the percentage increase of black 25-29 year olds graduating from university?
Rose from 5% to 15%
Arguments against affirmative action
1. Leads to reverse discrimination - another group is disadvantages
2. Can lead to minority's being admitted to jobs/courses that they are not qualified for
3. Can be condescending
4. Perpetuates society based on colour and race
5. Focuses on groups rather than individuals
6. Doesn't bear in mind other inequalities e.g. Wealth
What did the 2003 Gratz v. Bollinger case suggest about the life of affirmative action?
It ought to continue for another 25 years, until 2028
In 2017 115th Congress, what percentage is made up of non-whites? Compared to population?
19% compared to 38% of the population
How many Black, Hispanic, Asian and Native American congress people are there in 115th Congress?
2 Native American
How many heads of executive departments were from racial minorities in Obama's first cabinet?
How many positions in Trump's cabinet are women or from ethnic minorities? How many of those are in the inner cabinet?
None in inner cabinet
Who was the first African American appointed to the Sup Cy and when was he appointed?
Thurgood Marshall in 1968
Who was first Italian American to Sup Ct. and when we're they appointed?
Antonin Scalia in 1986