36 Antibiotic Resistance Wong-Beringer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 36 Antibiotic Resistance Wong-Beringer Deck (10):

What are the different ways that bacteria can acquire resistance?

Exchanged by conjugation or plasmids. Transmitted by a phage. Taken in from the environment


What are the major mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance?

Target site modification. Decreased permeability. Enzymatic degradation. Bypass. Efflux


Which bacteria are the most capable of forming resistance to antibiotics?

S. aureus and Pseudomonas


What are Pseudomonas aeruginosa's mechanisms of resistance?

Enzyme inactivation (AmpC, ESBL, KPC, AG inactivating enzyme). Broad substrate efflux pump overexpression. Porin loss. Target site mutations (DNA gyrase). Reducing binding of cations (colistin) to bacterial surface d/t altered surface charge


What are the major risk factors for the increase and spread of resistance?

Antibiotic misuse and overuse (Vanco, FQs). Non-compliance with infection control


What is the overall strategy to targeting bacterial virulence?

Inhibit specific mechanisms that promote infection and are essential to persistence in a pathogenic cascade (binding, invasion, subversion of host defenses and chemical signalling)


What are the advantages of targeting bacterial virulence?

Less selection pressure for drug-resistance mutations. Avoid undesirable dramatic alterations of the host microbiota


What do QseC Inhibitors (LED209) do?

QseC, a conserved membrane histidine sensor kinase from bacteria that responds to host neuroendocrine stress hormones. Does NOT kill or hinder bacterial growth


What does Antimicrobial Stewardship activity promote?

The appropriate selection of antimicrobials. The appropriate dosing of antimicrobials. The appropriate route and duration of antimicrobial therapy


What is proper hand hygiene?

Minimum 15 seconds wash before and after contact w/ patients and contaminated surfaces. Hand sanitizers are ok if hands are not soiled, wet, or sticky (Does NOT replace soap and water washes. NOT effective against spore producers, e.g. C. difficile)