Ch. 12 Forensic Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 12 Forensic Toxicology Deck (43)
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1
Q

alveoli

A

tiny sacs w/in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide takes place

2
Q

anticoagulant

A

a chemical that inhibits the coagulation of blood

3
Q

blood alcohol concentration (BAC)

A

the amount of alcohol in a person’s blood

4
Q

catalyst

A

a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction w/out being consumed during that reaction

5
Q

DUI

A

driving under the influence of alcohol

6
Q

DUID

A

driving under the influence of drugs

7
Q

excretion

A

the act or process of discharging waste matter from the blood, tissues, or organs

8
Q

fuel cell

A

a device that directly converts chemical energy into electrical energy through chemical reactions

9
Q

metabolites

A

the metabolic breakdown products of drugs

10
Q

oxidation

A

a chemical reaction in which oxygen is combined w/ other substances

11
Q

retention time

A

the amount of time it takes a compound to be separated via a gas chromatography

12
Q

vitreous humor

A

liquid inside the eye

13
Q

vitreous humor

A

liquid inside the eye

14
Q

Because there are so many possible poisons, the postmortem toxicological examination begins with a(n) ______ ______ of the deceased

A

case history

15
Q

The _____, _____, and _____ are organs that should be collected for postmortem toxicological analysis.

A

brain, liver & kidney

16
Q

If it is suspected that a poison was administered orally, the _____ should be analyzed first.

A

gastrointestinal (GI)

17
Q

A positive immunoassay test leads to a confirmation test that is usually performed by ______.

A

GC-MS

18
Q

Postmortem blood from the _______ has been found to contain higher concentrations of drugs than other parts of the body.

A

heart

19
Q

Arsenic concentrates in the _____ of the person who was poisoned.

A

hair

20
Q

The most widely abused drug in Western countries is ______.

A

alcohol

21
Q

A BAC of 0.08% is equivalent to ______ grams of alcohol per 100mL of blood.

A

0.08

22
Q

Is the field sobriety a presumptive or confirmatory test?

A

presumptive

23
Q

Legislation that triggers sanctions at a certain BAC level is called “______” legislation.

A

per se

24
Q

The laws that require motorists to undergo an alcohol breath test or face the loss of their driver’s licence are known as _____ ______ laws.

A

implied consent

25
Q

Alcohol acts as a(n) ______ on the central nervous system.

A

depressant

26
Q

Most of the alcohol a person drinks is absorbed into the bloodstream through the ____ ______.

A

stomach (20%) & small intestine (80%)

27
Q

The higher the proportion of water in an organ, the ______ (higher/lower) the concentration of alcohol.

A

lower

28
Q

Alcohol in the body is oxidized in this organ

A

liver

29
Q

More than 90% of the ethyl alcohol that enters the body is completely oxidized to _______.

A

acetic acid

30
Q

Alcohol that is not metabolized is excreted in the sweat, the urine, or the _______.

A

breath

31
Q

If alcohol is taken on a full stomach, the rate at which the BAC increases is _____ (slower/higher) than when alcohol is taken on an empty stomach.

A

slower

32
Q

Blood vessels called _____ carry blood away from the heart.

A

arteries

33
Q

Blood vessels called _____ carry blood back to the heart.

A

veins

34
Q

The distribution of alcohol between the blood and the air in the lungs can be determined by applying ______ law.

A

Henry’s

35
Q

One milliliter of blood will contain the same amount of alcohol as ______ milliliters of expired breath.

A

2100

36
Q

In the Breathalyzer, ethyl alcohol reacts with _______; this reaction is accompanied by a color change.

A

potassium dichromate

37
Q

In the Breathalyzer, ______ ethyl alcohol molecules react w/ _____ potassium dichromate molecules.

A

3, 2

38
Q

The silver nitrate that is present in the Breathalyzer solution is not written in the chemical equation because it is a(n) ______ in this reaction.

A

catalyst

39
Q

The more alcohol present in the breath sample, the ______ (greater/smaller) the absorbance observed by the Intoxilyzer.

A

greater

40
Q

The Intoxilyzer contains _______ filters, each of which allows only a narrow-wavelength band of IR to reach the detector.

A

IR

41
Q

Common interferences in breath alcohol tests are ______, from fingernail polish, and ________, a common solvent in oil-based paints.

A

acetone; toluene

42
Q

The reaction that takes place in the fuel cell of the Alcosensor converts ethyl alcohol to ________.

A

acetic acid

43
Q

The most reliable method of determining BAC is by ______ ______.

A

bloody tests