Ch15-Mood Disorders & Schizophrenia Flashcards Preview

Physiological Psychology Psy 315 > Ch15-Mood Disorders & Schizophrenia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch15-Mood Disorders & Schizophrenia Deck (50)
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1
Q

disorder characterized by individual feeling sad & helpless every day for weeks at a time [little energy, worthlessness, suicidal thoughts, hopelessness, problems sleeping (phase-advanced), little pleasure]

A

major depressive disorder

2
Q

what is a more reliable symptom of major depressive disorder than increased sadness?

A

Absence of happiness

3
Q

childhood depression is _____ for boys & girls; beyond age 14, depression is _______

A

equally common; more common in females

4
Q

it is more common to have _____ of depression than ____ depression

A

episodes; long-term

5
Q

few cases of depression are linked to ______

A

viral infections

6
Q

viral infection of farm animals, which produces periods of frantic activity alternating with periods of inactivity

A

borna disease

7
Q

depression after giving birth

[occurs in 20% of women; more common if women has suffered major depression previously]

A

postpartum depression

8
Q

depression is associated with decreased activity in the ___ prefrontal cortex and increased activity in the ___ prefrontal cortex

A

left; right

9
Q

what are the 4 major categories of anti-depressants

A

tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs], MAOIs, atypical antidepressants

10
Q

operate by blocking transporter proteins that reabsorb serotonin, dopamine, & norepinephrine [prolong effects of neurotransmitter on postsynaptic cell]

A

tricyclics

11
Q

block reuptake of serotonin to prolong presence of serotonin in the presynaptic cleft, where it continues to stimulate the postsynaptic cell [milder side effects than tricyclics]

A

SSRIs [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors]

12
Q

block the enzyme monoamine oxidase, a presynaptic terminal enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines & serotonin into inactive forms; with MAO blocked, presynaptic terminal has more of its transmitter available for release

A

MAOIs [monoamine oxidase inhibitors]

13
Q

miscellaneous group containing everything other than the other 3 types
[ex) wellbutrin: inhibits reuptake of dopamine & some norepinephrine but not serotonin; st. johns wort: herb]

A

atypical antidepressants

14
Q

people with depression have approx ______ levels of release of neurotransmitters

A

normal

15
Q

most people with depression have lower than average levels of ________ [antidepressants raise these levels after a few weeks]

A

brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]

16
Q

due to lack of BDNF, people with depression have smaller than average _____, impaired learning, & reduced production of new hippocampal neurons

A

hippocampus

17
Q

drugs and psychotherapy are about equally effective for treating all levels of depression with what 3 exceptions?

A
  • drugs work better for dysthymia
  • drugs are generally ineffective for patients who suffered early trauma
  • psychotherapy is more likely to have long-term benefits
18
Q

treatment for depression through an electrically induced seizure

A

electroconvulsive therapy [ECT]

19
Q

disorder characterized by individual varying between normality and 1 pole -depression

A

unipolar disorder

20
Q

disorder characterized by individual alternating between 2 poles -depression & mania

A

bipolar disorder

21
Q

characterized by restless activity, excitement, laughter, self-confidence, rambling speech, & loss of inhibitions

A

mania

22
Q

during depression glucose ____ in brain

during mania glucose _____ in brain

A

decreases, increases

23
Q

people have full blown episodes of mania

A

bipolar 1 disorder

24
Q

people have milder manic phases [hypomania], which are characterized mostly by agitation or anxiety

A

bipolar 2 disorder

25
Q

most people with bipolar disorder have

A

attention deficits, poor impulse control, impairments of verbal memory

26
Q

common treatment for bipolar disorders that stabilizes mood, preventing a relapse into either mania or depression, dose must be regulated carefully

A

lithium salts

27
Q

other effective drugs are ____ & _____; these decrease the number of AMPA type glutamate receptors in hippocampus [excessive glutamate is responsible for mania]

A

valproate, carbamazepine

28
Q

people who eat a pound of seafood per week have decreased risk of bipolar disorder due to omega-3 fatty acids counteracting ______ acid

A

arachidonic

29
Q

depression that recurs during a particular season [winter; most prevalent near poles] [have phase-delayed sleep]

A

seasonal affective disorder [SAD]

30
Q

Treatments for SAD include ____ for an hour or more each day

A

very bright lights

31
Q

schizophrenia was originally called ________ until Eugene Bleuler introduced new term, which means split between emotional & intellectual aspects of experience

A

dementia praecox

32
Q

disorder characterized by a deteriorated ability to function in everyday life for at least 6 months, and must show at least 2 of the following symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized behavior, weak or absent signs of emotion, speech, & socialization

A

schizophrenia

33
Q

behaviors that are present that should be absent

A

positive symptoms

34
Q

behaviors that are absent that should be present [usually stable over time & difficult to treat]

A

negative symptoms

35
Q

limitations of thought & reasoning that are common in schizophrenia; most common is difficulty understanding & using abstract concepts, deficits in attention & working memory

A

cognitive symptoms

36
Q

schizophrenia is more common in women than men 7:5; more severe in men with an onset in _____, while women have an onset in ______

A

early 20s; late 20s

37
Q

possible hypothesis involving gene mutation & schizophrenia

A

microdeletions & microduplications on multiple genes that affect brain development

38
Q

hypothesis that schizophrenia is based on abnormalities in the prenatal or neonatal development of the nervous system

A

neurodevelopmental hypothesis

39
Q

relieves positive symptoms for most patients

A

chlorpromazine [thorazine] discovered in 1950s

40
Q

drugs that tend to relieve schizophrenia & similar conditions

A

antipsychotic or neuroleptic drugs

41
Q

2 chemical families of antipsychotics - both block dopamine
_____ includes chlorpromazine
_____ includes haloperidol

A

phenothiazines, butyrophenones

42
Q

hypothesis that states schizophrenia results from excess activity at dopamine synapses in certain brain areas; dopamine turnover is elevated [esp. in basal ganglia]

A

dopamine hypothesis

43
Q

characterized by hallucinations & delusions - results from repeated doses of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine & LSD [drugs increase or prolong activity at dopamine synapses]

A

substance-induced psychotic disorder

44
Q

hypothesis that states the problem of schizophrenia relates in part to deficient activity at glutamate synapses, esp in prefrontal cortex

A

glutamate hypothesis

45
Q

in many brain areas dopamine ____ glutamate release, or glutamate _____ neurons that inhibit dopamine release
[schizophrenia is associated with lower than normal release of glutamate]

A

inhibit, stimulates

46
Q

______ in low doses produce intoxication & slurred speech, larger doses produce both positive & negative symptoms of schizophrenia [supports glutamate hypothesis]

A

phencyclidine [PCP]

47
Q

drugs that block dopamine synapses produce their benefits by acting on neurons in the ______ system; set of neurons that project from the midbrain tegmentum to the limbic system

A

mesolimbocortical system

48
Q

drugs also block dopamine neurons in the ____ system, which projects to the basal ganglia; this results in ____ - characterized by tremors & other involuntary movements

A

mesotriatal; tardive dyskinesia

49
Q

to prevent tardive dyskinesia, _____ should be used [atypical antipsychotics]; these alleviate schizophrenia without producing movement problems [better at treating negative symptoms]

A

second-generation antipsychotics

50
Q

if mother is Rh negative & baby is Rh positive, the baby’s blood factor may trigger an immunological rejection by the mother which can lead to _____

A

schizophrenia